Latest research on cord clamping

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We will continously blog on our own and others results on cord clamping, as well as other news related to the subject, such as umbilical cord milking and resuscitation.

Latest posts from the blog

The first author, Manuela Isacson called all labor departments in Sweden twice, and asked the 95 midwives about their cord clamping practice.

Now we publish the results:

INTRODUCTION The timing of cord clamping impacts children’s short- and long- term well-being. When making clinical decisions, midwives incorporate their tacit and professional knowledge, experience and current evidence. There appears to be a lack of knowledge regarding Swedish midwives’ management of the third stage of labor and cord clamping practice. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish midwives’ clinical practice concerning umbilical cord clamping and the third stage of labor in spontaneous vaginal births.
METHODS The study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey including 13 questions. Midwives were randomly selected from 48 births units in Sweden. Two midwives from each unit were interviewed. The primary outcome was timing of umbilical cord clamping practice in full-term infants. Secondary outcomes were the management of the third stage of labor including prophylactic use of synthetic oxytocin, the timing of cord clamping in preterm infants, controlled cord traction, uterine massage, and cord milking.
RESULTS Altogether, 95 midwives were interviewed. In full-term infants, all midwives preferred late cord clamping. Considerable heterogeneity was seen regarding the practices of synthetic oxytocin administration postpartum, controlled cord traction, uterine massage or cord milking, and cord clamping in preterm infants.
CONCLUSIONS Midwives in Sweden modify recommendations regarding delayed cord clamping in a way they might perceive as more natural and practical in their daily, clinical work. The study revealed a reluctance toward the administration of prophylactic oxytocin due to fear that the drug could pass to the infant. An overall large variation of the management of the third stage of labor was seen.
Read more:
Läs hela inlägget »
4 August 2021
New uptodate review on cord clamping
11 February 2017
In memory of Hans Rosling:


Latest posts on NEW research

Two of the persons involved in the development of Lifestart trolley ( has published a review in Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology.
"Abstract: The rationale for keeping the mother and her newborn together even when neonatal resuscitation is required is presented. The development of a customised mobile resuscitation trolley is detailed explaining how the resuscitation team can be provided with all the facilities of a standard resuscitation trolley to resuscitate the neonate at the mother’s side with an intact cord. Alternative low tech solutions which may be appropriate in low resource setting and with a low risk population are also described."

Läs hela inlägget »
9 July 2015
Delayed clamping vs. milking in preterm infants
12 June 2015
Review on delivery room management of newly born infants
23 May 2015
Cardiac changes during delayed cord clamping
3 May 2015
Delayed cord clamping with and without cord stripping: a prospective randomized trial of preterm neo
12 April 2015
Delayed cord clamping in South African neonates with expected low birthweight


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  • Does physiological-based cord clamping improve cerebral tissue oxygenation and perfusion in healthy term neonates? - A randomized controlled trial

    Front Pediatr. 2023 Jan 9;10:1005947. doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.1005947. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: To evaluate cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) during neonatal transition in a group of healthy full-term neonates receiving either a physiological-based approach of deferred cord clamping (CC) after the onset of stable regular breathing (PBCC group) or a standard approach of time-based CC < 1 min (control group). Secondary aim was to evaluate changes in cerebral blood volume (ΔCBV), peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) in those neonates.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial ( NCT02763436) including vaginally delivered healthy full-term neonates. Continuous measurements of cTOI and ΔCBV using near-infrared spectroscopy, and of SpO2 and HR using pulse oximetry were performed within the first 15 min after birth. Data of each minute of the PBCC group were compared to those of the control group.RESULTS: A total of 71 full-term neonates (PBCC: n = 35, control: n = 36) with a mean (SD) gestational age of 40.0 (1.0) weeks and a birth weight of 3,479 (424) grams were included. Median (IQR) time of CC was 275 (197-345) seconds and 58 (35-86) seconds in the PBCC and control group, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding cTOI (p = 0.319), ΔCBV (p = 0.814), SpO2 (p = 0.322) and HR (p = 0.878) during the first 15 min after birth.CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the course of cTOI as well as ΔCBV, SpO2 and HR during the first 15 min after birth in a group of healthy full-term neonates, who received either deferred CC after the onset of stable regular breathing or standard CC < 1 min. Thus, deferring CC ≥ 1 min following a physiological-based approach offers no benefits regarding cerebral tissue oxygenation and perfusion after uncomplicated vaginal delivery compared to a time-based CC approach.PMID:36699304 | PMC:PMC9869382 | DOI:10.3389/fped.2022.1005947…
    26 January 2023 12:00 – Bernhard Schwaberger
  • Care at the first postnatal hour in two hospitals of the Adequate Birth Project: qualitative analysis of experiences in two stages of the Healthy Birth research

    Reprod Health. 2023 Jan 12;20(Suppl 2):14. doi: 10.1186/s12978-022-01540-5.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The Adequate Childbirth Project (PPA) is a quality improvement project that aims to enhance normal delivery and reduce cesarean sections with no clinical indication in the Brazilian supplementary health care system. This study aims to analyze the care model of the first postpartum hour in hospitals that participated in the PPA.METHODS: Qualitative analysis based on the narrative of 102 women attended at two hospitals participating in the evaluative "Healthy Birth" research that analyzed the degree of implementation and the effects of the PPA. We assessed three practices within the first hour after delivery: skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding and appropriate clamping of the umbilical cord. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews by telephone and submitted to thematic content analysis.RESULTS: The categories that emerged from the analysis of the results were "Dimension of time and care expressed in the lived experience" and "Interferences in care in the first hour of life". In the first category, women reported that in the first hour after delivery the newborn was placed on the mother's chest, but the length of time of the newborn's stay in skin-to-skin contact was less than one hour. This experience, even in a shorter period of time, was said to be positive by the women interviewed. Two barriers were observed: interruption of skin-to-skin contact for neonatal care and the transfer to the recovery room, both separating baby from mother without observing the duration of the "golden hour". It was identified that a process of improvement of the quality of care for childbirth is underway, with a gradual incorporation of recommended practices for care in newborn's first hour of life.CONCLUSIONS: Women reported access to the three care practices at two hospitals participating in the PPA quality improvement project. All practices were valued by women as a positive experience and should be promoted. Information during antenatal care to increase women´s autonomy, review of hospital practices to reduce barriers, and support from health care providers during the first hour after birth are needed to improve the implementation of these practices and access to their health benefits.PMID:36635687 | PMC:PMC9835209 | DOI:10.1186/s12978-022-01540-5…
    12 January 2023 12:00 – Maysa Luduvice Gomes
  • Increased risk of bradycardia in vigorous infants receiving early as compared to delayed cord clamping at birth

    J Perinatol. 2022 Dec 31. doi: 10.1038/s41372-022-01593-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To compare HR pattern of vigorous newborns during the first 180 s with early (≤60 s, ECC) or delayed (>60 s, DCC) cord clamping.STUDY DESIGN: Observational study including dry-electrode ECG monitoring of 610 vaginally-born singleton term and late-preterm (≥34 weeks) who were vigorous after birth.RESULTS: 198 received ECC while 412 received DCC with median cord clamping at 37 s and 94 s. Median HR remained stable from 30 to 180 s with DCC (172 and 170 bpm respectively) but increased with ECC (169 and 184 bpm). The proportion with bradycardia was higher among ECC than DCC at 30 s and fell faster in the DCC through 60 s. After adjusting for factors affecting timing of cord clamping, ECC had significant risk of bradycardia compared to DCC (aRR 1.51; 95% CI; 1.01-2.26).CONCLUSION: Early heart instability and higher risk of bradycardia with ECC as compared to DCC supports the recommended clinical practice of DCC.PMID:36587054 | DOI:10.1038/s41372-022-01593-1…
    31 December 2022 12:00 – Ashish Kc
  • The Anemic Newborn at Birth: from Diagnosis to Treatment

    Curr Pediatr Rev. 2022 Dec 20. doi: 10.2174/1573396319666221220110156. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNeonatal anaemia is a very frequent clinical condition that may be due to apparent or not evident blood loss, decreased red blood cells (RBCs) production, or increased destruction of RBCs. RBCs transfusion criteria are clearly defined by several national and locally agreed guidelines. However, it is not possible to define a unique cut-off to guide clinicians' transfusion practice, which needs a multiparametric analysis of demographic variables (gestational age, postnatal age, birth weight), clinical evaluation, conventional and new generation monitoring (such as echocardiography and near-infrared spectroscopy). Unfortunately, few tools are available in the delivery room to help neonatologists in the management of newborn with acute anaemia. Early volume replacement with cristalloids and RBCs transfusion could be life-saving in the delivery room when a hypovolaemic shock is suspected, but the use of un-crossmatched whole is not risk-free nor easily available in clinical practice. Placental transfusion could be an extremely effective and inexpensive method to increase haemoglobin (Hb), to improve oxygen delivery, and to increase cardiac output with a reduced need for RBCs transfusions, a reduced risk of intraventricular haemorrhages, and an improved survival of the newborn.PMID:36545739 | DOI:10.2174/1573396319666221220110156…
    22 December 2022 12:00 – Petrolini Chiara
  • Delayed umbilical cord clamping - benefits and risks

    Ceska Gynekol. 2022;87(6):424-426. doi: 10.48095/cccg2022424.ABSTRACTDelayed umbilical cord clamping is a standard procedure for active management of the 3rd stage of labour. There are benefits associated with more than a 30 second delay, but 1 minute is usually recommended. For newborns, increased iron reserves are important having a positive impact on further development. A reduction in the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage is often reported in preterm births. In delayed umbilical cord clamping, no increased maternal blood loss was recorded, even in multiple pregnancies and caesarean sections.PMID:36543591 | DOI:10.48095/cccg2022424…
    21 December 2022 12:00 – Tomáš Fait
  • AMBAR: A midwifery-led training program to improve obstetric and neonatal practices among low-risk births in Mexico

    Birth. 2022 Dec 18. doi: 10.1111/birt.12699. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Birth care in Mexican health institutions is highly medicalized and of poor quality because of the prevalence of outdated and dangerous practices. AMBAR-a training program for health care providers on the use of evidence-based midwifery practices-was implemented during 2016-2018 and evaluated to assess the impact of training on key practices.METHODS: For this mixed-methods study, we evaluated the effects of a training program implemented in three public hospital networks in Mexico. Qualitative data were collected and integrated into the program before evaluating the effects of the intervention on 10 birth practices, 5 beneficial and 5 potentially harmful. Quantitative data on birth practices and covariates were collected at six time points (baseline and 5 follow-ups) in a final sample of 330 direct observations. Effect estimates were obtained by longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models, adjusted for confounding variables.RESULTS: AMBAR had a significant effect on 4 of the 10 birth practices that were evaluated. Beneficial practices, such as skin-to-skin contact (P = 0.003) and delayed cord clamping (P = 0.039), increased significantly. Harmful when overused birth practices, such as vaginal examinations (P = 0.001), and cesarean birth (P < 0.001) decreased significantly.CONCLUSIONS: Midwifery-based training programs for health care providers can have an impact on the quality of care of birthing people and newborns, increasing the use of evidence-based practices and decreasing frequently overused practices.PMID:36529703 | DOI:10.1111/birt.12699…
    18 December 2022 12:00 – Marina Séris
  • Postoperative infections after non-elective cesarean section - a retrospective cohort study of prevalence and risk factors at a single center in Denmark administering prophylactic antibiotics after cord clamping

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Dec 17;22(1):945. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-05300-y.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Mothers giving birth by non-elective cesarean section have considerably higher risk of developing postoperative infection, than mothers giving birth by elective cesarean section. Meta-analyses have shown that the risk of infection is reduced when administering antibiotics at least 30 min prior to skin incision rather than after cord clamping. If given prior to incision, antibiotics are present in the neonatal bloodstream for up to 24 h after delivery, with early exposure to antibiotics potentially disturbing development of the gut microbiome. We aimed to retrospectively assess the prevalence of postoperative infection after non-elective cesarean section at a single labor ward administering antibiotics after cord clamping, additionally investigating risk factors for developing postoperative infections.METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included a total of 2,725 women giving birth by non-elective cesarean section in 2010-2017 with a review of records for prenatal risk factors, labor management, and perinatal outcomes. The primary outcomes were a main composite infection of development of either endometritis, surgical-site infection, or sepsis in conjunction with a relevant antibiotic prescription. Secondary outcomes included infection of unknown focus, mastitis, urinary tract infection, and pneumonia.RESULTS: A total of 88 patients developed a main composite infection (3.2%). These infections subdivide into endometritis (n = 37/2725, 1.4%), surgical-site infection (n = 35/2725, 1.3%) and sepsis (n = 15/2725, 0.6%). We found a high body mass index (aOR = 3.38, 95%CI 1.93-5.92) and intrapartum fever (aOR = 2.26, 95%CI 1.22-4.59) to be independent risk-factors for developing postoperative infection after non-elective cesarean section. Furthermore, we found delivery by a more expedient emergency grade 2 cesarean section (aOR = 0.61 95%CI 0.37-0.998) compared to grade 3 to be a protective factor for developing postoperative infection after non-elective cesarean section.CONCLUSION: In a labor ward administering antibiotics after cord clamping at non-elective cesarean births, we find a low prevalence of main composite infections when compared to estimates from meta-analyses on the topic. We conclude that administration of prophylactic antibiotics after cord clamping appears to result in acceptable rates of postoperative infection and avoids transplacental-transmission of antibiotics to the infant.PMID:36528589 | PMC:PMC9758935 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-05300-y…
    17 December 2022 12:00 – Katja Kuhr
  • Placental Transfusion Strategies in Preterm Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    Neonatology. 2022 Dec 14:1-16. doi: 10.1159/000527454. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns have not been evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The objective of this systematic review was to compare placental transfusion strategies in preterm newborns in LMICs, including delayed cord clamping (DCC) for various time intervals, DCC until cord pulsations stop, umbilical cord milking, and immediate cord clamping (ICC).METHODS: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched from inception. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently extracted data for Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA) if more than 3 interventions reported an outcome or a pairwise meta-analysis was utilized.RESULTS: Among newborns <34 weeks of gestation, NMA of 9 RCTs could not rule out benefit or harm for survival from DCC 30-60 s compared to ICC: relative risk (RR) (95% credible interval) 0.96 (0.78-1.12), moderate certainty, or any included strategy compared to each other (low to very low certainty). Among late preterm newborns, DCC 120 s might be associated with improved survival: RR (95% confidence interval) 1.11 (1.01-1.22), very low certainty. We could not detect differences in the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage grade > II and bronchopulmonary dysplasia for any included intervention (low to very low certainty). DCC 60 s and 120 s might improve the hematocrit level among all preterm newborns (very low certainty), and DCC 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes among newborns <34 weeks of gestation (low certainty).CONCLUSIONS: In LMICs, DCC for 60 s and 120 s might improve hematocrit level in preterm newborns, and DCC for 45 s may decrease the risk of receipt of inotropes in newborns <34 weeks, with no conclusive effect on survival.PMID:36516794 | DOI:10.1159/000527454…
    14 December 2022 12:00 – Viraraghavan Vadakkencherry Ramaswamy
  • EBNEO commentary on "umbilical cord milking in nonvigorous infants: A cluster-randomised crossover trial"

    Acta Paediatr. 2023 Feb;112(2):324-325. doi: 10.1111/apa.16611. Epub 2022 Dec 10.NO ABSTRACTPMID:36495103 | DOI:10.1111/apa.16611…
    10 December 2022 12:00 – Vonita Chawla
  • Adherence to humanized care practices for newborns with good vitality in the delivery room

    Rev Gaucha Enferm. 2022 Dec 2;43:e20210248. doi: 10.1590/1983-1447.2022.20210248.en. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To know the intervening factors in the adherence of health professionals to humanized care practices for newborns with good vitality in the delivery room.METHOD: Qualitative research, through an online form with 36 health professionals working in delivery rooms in Rio de Janeiro. Data processed in the Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes Et de Questionnaires and analyzed according to Thematic Content Analysis.RESULTS: Skin-to-skin contact was identified as a factor that is directly related to timely clamping of the umbilical cord and breastfeeding in the first hour of life. Other intervening factors were: acceptance, training and professional category; type of delivery; qualification and training of teams.CONCLUSIONS: Professional improvement combined with encouragement from the leadership, partnership between peers, good working conditions, human resources and infrastructure and guidance to families provide adherence to humanized care practices for the newborn in the delivery room.PMID:36478001 | DOI:10.1590/1983-1447.2022.20210248.en…
    8 December 2022 12:00 – Laryssa Cristina Schott
  • Lung Aeration During Deferred Cord Clamping-No Additional Benefits in Infants Born Preterm?

    J Pediatr. 2022 Dec 2:S0022-3476(22)01087-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.11.029. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:36463936 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.11.029…
    4 December 2022 12:00 – Satyan Lakshminrusimha
  • A Review on Umbilical Cord Milking and Its Implications in Neonatal Health

    Cureus. 2022 Oct 23;14(10):e30610. doi: 10.7759/cureus.30610. eCollection 2022 Oct.ABSTRACTIn India, there is an extreme lack of advancement in techniques concerning the care of infants during labor and post-pregnancy, i.e., the postnatal period. India projected an Infant Mortality Rate of 28.771 deaths per 1000 live births for the year 2021. Such a high death rate in infants arises a dire need to discover and launch new techniques and increase the application of the existing lesser-known techniques. One less well-known technique is the milking of the infant's umbilical cord. Transfusion of placental blood has recently been considered definitive in the care of newborns with the boon to the infant of declined death rate in preterm neonates and the enhanced consequences of growth in term infants. The chief goal of this descriptive review article is to examine all the studies relating to umbilical cord milking (UCM) in late-preterm and term infants and to evaluate every achievable outcome and restriction of a given process in clinical application, mainly when compared to rapid and late umbilical cord clamping. Application of milking of the umbilical cord can be seen to improve the health of hypoxic neonates, weight parameters, blood volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin, iron levels in the blood, red blood cell count, blood pressure, right ventricular output, left ventricular functions, cerebral oxygenation, urine output regulation, cognitive abilities, antioxidant levels, better outcomes in the resuscitation of infant and above all helps in lowering Infant Mortality Rates.PMID:36426307 | PMC:PMC9681015 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.30610…
    25 November 2022 12:00 – Shubhi N Jain
  • Maternal bleeding complications and neonatal outcomes following early versus delayed umbilical cord clamping in cesarean deliveries for very low birthweight infants

    J Perinatol. 2023 Jan;43(1):39-43. doi: 10.1038/s41372-022-01558-4. Epub 2022 Nov 10.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Determine effect of at least 60 s delayed cord clamping (DCC) on postpartum hemorrhage and maternal estimated blood loss (EBL) in very low birth weight (VLBW) cesarean deliveries when compared to early cord clamping (ECC).STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of VLBW infants at birth. Maternal pre- and post-operative hemoglobin, EBL, and neonatal outcomes were collected.RESULTS: In total, 620 VLBW infants (DCC = 166, ECC = 454) born to 545 mothers (DCC = 155, ECC = 390) were included. Maternal PPH between DCC was 8% versus ECC was 10% p = 0.52. There were no differences in estimated blood loss or rate of maternal blood transfusion between groups. The post-operative hemoglobin was lower in infants receiving ECC compared to DCC (10.4 [9.4-11.5] versus 10.8 [10.1-11.9] g/dl, p = 0.01). In comparing pre-operative to post-operative hemoglobin there was no difference between DCC and ECC (-1.2 [-2.0 to -0.3] versus -1.2 [-2.1 to -0.6] g/dl, p = 0.46).CONCLUSION: DCC of at least 60 s did not increase maternal bleeding complications during VLBW cesarean delivery. To our knowledge, this retrospective study is the largest sample size to date of preterm cesarean deliveries to support maternal safety regarding bleeding complications after delayed cord clamping.PMID:36357575 | DOI:10.1038/s41372-022-01558-4…
    10 November 2022 12:00 – Catherine Salcido
  • Delayed Cord Clamping Uptake and Outcomes for Infants Born Very Preterm in California

    Am J Perinatol. 2022 Dec 30. doi: 10.1055/a-1975-4607. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the purported benefits of delayed cord clamping (DCC) translate into a reduction in mortality and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) among preterm neonates in practice.STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of very preterm infants constructed from data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative for infants admitted into 130 California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) within the first 28 days of life from 2016 through 2020. Individual-level analyses were conducted using log-binomial regression models controlling for confounders and allowing for correlation within hospitals to examine the relationship of DCC to the outcomes of mortality and IVH. Hospital-level analyses were conducted using Poisson regression models with robust variance controlling for confounders.RESULTS: Among 13,094 very preterm infants included (5,856 with DCC and 7,220 without), DCC was associated with a 43% lower risk of mortality (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]: 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.66). Furthermore, every 10% increase in the hospital rate of DCC among preterm infants was associated with a 4% lower hospital mortality rate among preterm infants (aRR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99). DCC was associated with severe IVH at the individual level, but not at the hospital level.CONCLUSION: At the individual level and hospital level, the use of DCC was associated with lower mortality among preterm infants admitted to NICUs in California. These findings are consistent with clinical trial results, suggesting that the effects of DCC seen in clinical trials are translating to improved survival in practice.KEY POINTS: · DCC was associated with lower mortality among very preterm newborns in California.. · Hospitals using DCC more often had lower very preterm mortality.. · DCC was not associated with IVH at the hospital level..PMID:36351446 | DOI:10.1055/a-1975-4607…
    9 November 2022 12:00 – Mary K Quinn
  • Every treasured drop! Blood transfusion requirements in very preterm neonates after implementation of blood conservation strategies: an observational analytical study

    J Trop Pediatr. 2022 Oct 6;68(6):fmac093. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmac093.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Certain morbidities are inevitable in preterm infants; the challenge lies in minimizing them. Anemia of prematurity is multifactorial. Therapy largely depends on adult red blood cell transfusions (RBCT); which inherently, are not without problems. Most literature in this respect are retrospective or evaluate individual stratagems to reduce RBCT.METHODS: This observational analytical study was planned to compare need for RBCT, before and after institution of blood conservation strategies (BCS). All those ≤30 weeks gestation at birth during two-time epochs were included (Before BCS: retrospective; After BCS: prospective). BCS constituted of delayed cord clamping (DCC), strict sampling indications, micro-sampling with point-of-care testing (MS-POCT) and adherence to RBCT thresholds.RESULTS: Of 45 enrolled neonates in each group, proportion of those requiring even 1 RBCT was significantly reduced after BCS [51.1% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.02, OR 0.35, 95%CI (0.14, 0.84)]. Calculated cumulative blood volume losses (35.3 ml vs. 21.9 ml) and loss per kilogram birth weight (35.3 ml/kg vs. 20.12 ml/kg) were significantly lower after BCS (p = 0.0036). Need for &gt;1 RBCT, mean lowest Hb, mean maximum-hemoglobin drop, need for arterial lines were reduced. Adherence to RBCT thresholds were acceptably good in both time epochs. However, the compliance to DCC was low in both groups, identifying one area of focus with scope for massive improvement.CONCLUSIONS: Need for RBCT transfusions largely attributable to reduced blood losses for lab analysis were reduced after BCS. Installation of in-house MS-POCT seemed to be the pivotal factor. Units that care for very preterm infants must make attempts to procure MS-POCT equipment.PMID:36306125 | DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmac093…
    28 October 2022 12:00 – Vishnu Anand
  • The cesarean procedure: Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol. 2023 Jan;51(1):7-34. doi: 10.1016/j.gofs.2022.10.002. Epub 2022 Oct 11.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To identify procedures to reduce maternal morbidity during cesarean.MATERIAL AND METHODS: The quality of evidence of the literature was assessed following the GRADE® method with questions formulated in the PICO format (Patients, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) and outcomes defined a priori and classified according to their importance. An extensive bibliographic search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE databases. The quality of the evidence was assessed (high, moderate, low, very low) and a (i) strong or (ii) weak recommendations or (iii) no recommendation were formulated. The recommendations were reviewed in two rounds with external reviewers (Delphi survey) to select the consensus recommendations.RESULTS: Of the 27 questions, there was agreement between the working group and the external reviewers on 26. The level of evidence of the literature was insufficient to provide a recommendation on 15 questions. Preventing hypothermia is recommended to increase maternal satisfaction and comfort (weak recommendation) and to reduce neonatal hypothermia (strong recommendation). The quality of the evidence of the literature did not allow to recommend the skin disinfectant to be used nor the relevance of a preoperative vaginal disinfection nor the choice between the use or nonuse of an indwelling bladder catheterization (if micturition takes place 1 hour before the cesarean section). The Misgav-Ladach technique or its analogues should be considered rather than the Pfannenstiel technique to reduce maternal morbidity (weak recommendation) bladder flap before uterine incision should not be performed routinely (weak recommendation), but a blunt (weak recommendation) and cephalad-caudad extension of uterine incision (weak recommendation) should be considered to reduce maternal morbidity. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended to reduce maternal infectious morbidity (strong recommendation) without recommendation on its type or the timing of administration (before incision or after cord clamping). The administration of carbetocin after cord clamping does not significantly decrease the incidence of blood loss>1000 ml, anemia, or blood transfusion compared with the administration of oxytocin. Thus, it is not recommended to use carbetocin rather than oxytocin in cesarean. It is recommended that systematic manual removal of the placenta not to be performed (weak recommendation). An antiemetic should be administered after cord clamping in women having a planned cesarean under locoregional anaesthesia to reduce intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting (strong recommendation) with no recommendation regarding choice of use one or two antiemetics. The level of evidence of the literature was insufficient to provide any recommendation concerning single or double-layer closure of the uterine incision, or the uterine exteriorization. Closing the peritoneum (visceral or parietal) should not be considered (weak recommendation). The quality of the evidence of the literature was not sufficient to provide recommendation on systematic subcutaneous closure, including in obese or overweight patients, or the use of subcuticular suture in obese or overweight patients. The use of subcuticular suture in comparison with skin closure by staples was not considered as a recommendation due to the absence of a consensus in the external review rounds.CONCLUSION: In case of cesarean, preventing hypothermia, administering antiemetic and antibiotic prophylaxis after cord clamping are the only strong recommendations. The Misgav-Ladach technique, the way of performing uterine incision (no systematic bladder flap, blunt cephalad-caudad extension), not performing routine manual removal of the placenta nor closure of the peritoneum are weak recommendations and may reduce maternal morbidity.PMID:36228999 | DOI:10.1016/j.gofs.2022.10.002…
    13 October 2022 12:00 – L Sentilhes
  • Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm infants who received cord milking at birth: a randomized controlled trial

    Eur J Pediatr. 2022 Dec;181(12):4215-4220. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04638-x. Epub 2022 Oct 4.ABSTRACTUmbilical cord milking improves postnatal adaptation and short-term outcomes of very preterm infants compared to early cord clamping. Little is known about the impact of umbilical cord milking on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of intact umbilical cord milking (UCM) vs. early cord clamping (ECC) at birth on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months' corrected age. Preterm infants < 31 weeks' gestation who were randomized at birth to receive three time milking of their attached cord or ECC (< 10 s) were evaluated at 36 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed by blinded examiners using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (version III). Analysis was by intention to treat. Out of the 73 infants included in the original trial, 2 died and 65 (92%) infants were evaluated at 36 months' corrected age. Patient characteristics and short-term outcomes were similar in both study groups. There were no significant differences in the median cognitive, motor or language scores or in the rates of cerebral palsy, developmental impairment, deafness, or blindness between study groups.CONCLUSION: Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months' corrected age of very preterm infants who received UCM were not shown to be significantly different from those who received ECC at birth.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01487187 What is Known: • Compared to early cord clamping, umbilical cord milking improves postnatal adaptation and short-term outcomes of very preterm infants compared to early cord clamping. • Little is known about the impact of umbilical cord milking on neurodevelopmental outcomes.WHAT IS NEW: • Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years of age were not significantly different in very preterm infants who received cord milking vs. those who received early cord clamping at birth.PMID:36194256 | DOI:10.1007/s00431-022-04638-x…
    4 October 2022 12:00 – Walid El-Naggar
  • Physiological-based cord clamping in very preterm infants: the Aeration, Breathing, Clamping 3 (ABC3) trial-study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Trials. 2022 Oct 1;23(1):838. doi: 10.1186/s13063-022-06789-6.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) up to 1 min in preterm infants, unless the condition of the infant requires immediate resuscitation. However, clamping the cord prior to lung aeration may severely limit circulatory adaptation resulting in a reduction in cardiac output and hypoxia. Delaying cord clamping until lung aeration and ventilation have been established (physiological-based cord clamping, PBCC) allows for an adequately established pulmonary circulation and results in a more stable circulatory transition. The decline in cardiac output following time-based delayed cord clamping (TBCC) may thus be avoided. We hypothesise that PBCC, compared to TBCC, results in a more stable transition in very preterm infants, leading to improved clinical outcomes. The primary objective is to compare the effect of PBCC on intact survival with TBCC.METHODS: The Aeriation, Breathing, Clamping 3 (ABC3) trial is a multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial. In the interventional PBCC group, the umbilical cord is clamped after the infant is stabilised, defined as reaching heart rate > 100 bpm and SpO2 > 85% while using supplemental oxygen < 40%. In the control TBCC group, cord clamping is time based at 30-60 s. The primary outcome is survival without major cerebral and/or intestinal injury. Preterm infants born before 30 weeks of gestation are included after prenatal parental informed consent. The required sample size is 660 infants.DISCUSSION: The findings of this trial will provide evidence for future clinical guidelines on optimal cord clamping management in very preterm infants at birth.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03808051. First registered on January 17, 2019.PMID:36183143 | PMC:PMC9526936 | DOI:10.1186/s13063-022-06789-6…
    1 October 2022 12:00 – Ronny Knol
  • The Novel Use of Umbilical Cord Blood to Obtain Complete Blood Counts for Critical Neonatal Assessment

    Cureus. 2022 Aug 14;14(8):e28009. doi: 10.7759/cureus.28009. eCollection 2022 Aug.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Neonates undergoing clinical evaluations are often subjected to potentially painful phlebotomy for laboratory tests. The use of cord blood laboratory values for admission has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of painful venipuncture and anemia.METHODS: Peripheral and umbilical cord blood complete blood count (CBC) results were obtained from infants who required a CBC. Results were compared using the Sysmex XN heme analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan).RESULTS: White blood cell (WBC) and hemoglobin (HgB) values were significantly higher in peripheral samples than in cord samples. The mean cord WBC count was 14.1 × 103/mm3 versus 15.6 × 103/mm3 peripherally (p < 0.001). The mean cord HgB was 15.8 g/dL versus 16.8 g/dL peripherally (p < 0.001). Cord platelet (Plt) counts were, conversely, lower in peripheral samples than in cord samples (264.8 × 103/mm3 versus 242.3 × 103/mm3, respectively; p < 0.001). Although statistically different, the mean CBC values from both samples were within the reference ranges. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) increased peripheral versus cord HgB difference nearly threefold (0.6-1.7 g/dL; p = 0.01).CONCLUSIONS: Cord blood is an acceptable source for CBC blood sampling in newborn infants and can be used for clinical decisions. CBC laboratory values for cord blood remained within the peripheral blood reference range, with slight variability between the two samples.PMID:36134078 | PMC:PMC9470209 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.28009…
    22 September 2022 12:00 – Alexandra P Hansen
  • The effect of placental transfusion on hemodynamics in premature newborns: a randomized controlled trial

    Eur J Pediatr. 2022 Dec;181(12):4121-4133. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04619-0. Epub 2022 Sep 21.ABSTRACTDespite of growing evidence of the beneficial effects of placental transfusion techniques, there is no available sufficient data about their effects on vulnerable hemodynamics and myocardium of premature infants. The purpose of this work is to study ventricular functions and hemodynamics after applying different placental transfusion techniques, delayed cord clamping (DCC), cut cord milking (C-UCM), and intact cord milking (I-UCM). Sixty-four infants delivered whether by C-section or vaginal delivery were randomly assigned to undergo C-UCM (20-30 cm), I-UCM (3-4 strippings), and DCC (30-60 s). Functional echocardiography was done on day 1 and day 3 of life for 57 infants. Primary outcome variable was superior vena cava flow measurement in infants having placental transfusion in the first 24 h of life and between 64 and 72 h. Secondary outcomes were other echocardiographic and clinical hemodynamic parameters, and biventricular functions in those infants. Of a total 196 preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks delivered in the study period, from January 2021 to August 2021, 57 infants were eligible and survived till the second examination. They were randomly assigned to the three groups. Neonates randomly assigned to DCC had significantly higher superior vena cava flow and lower right ventricular systolic function in the first 24 h of life. This finding vanished at day 3. Neonates undergone different methods of placental transfusions had similar hemoglobin, admission temperature, and mean blood pressure in the first 24 h of life.CONCLUSION: Despite their potential benefits, placental transfusions have shown to alter the hemodynamics and adversely affect myocardial function of premature neonates.TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in the clinical trial gov NCT04811872.WHAT IS KNOWN: • Placental transfusion techniques might have benefits regarding prematurity- related morbidities and mortality.WHAT IS NEW: • Placental transfusion might adversely affect the myocardium and alter hemodynamics in premature infants.PMID:36129535 | PMC:PMC9649456 | DOI:10.1007/s00431-022-04619-0…
    21 September 2022 12:00 – Marwa Mohamed Farag
  • Umbilical cord clamping time and maternal satisfaction

    Midwifery. 2022 Dec;115:103487. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2022.103487. Epub 2022 Sep 13.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Clamping of the umbilical cord is part of the third stage of delivery. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is recommended due to its contribution to prevention of anaemia. There is no evidence on the effect of DCC on maternal satisfaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different sociodemographic and obstetric factors, including the timing of cord clamping, on maternal satisfaction with the birth experience in our healthcare system.DESIGN: Pragmatic non-drug intervention study with simple random assignment of participating mothers (Clinical Trials N°: NCT03624335).SETTING: A public, university-level hospital in Villarreal city, eastern Spain.PARTICIPANTS: Childbearing woman, gestation week between 35 and 42 weeks, with regular medical pregnancy checks, single pregnancy and vaginal delivery (N = 198, 80% of the women recruited).INTERVENTIONS: umbilical cord clamping within 60 seconds of the birth (Early cord clamping, ECC) versus umbilical cord clamping after pulsation had been ceased (Delayed cord clamping, DCC).MEASUREMENTS: Birth satisfaction was measured using the Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale (MCSRS). Additionally, sociodemographic data, degree of knowledge about the moment of clamping and type of breastfeeding data were recorded. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests for comparison of the mean of two, three, or more groups, respectively, and Chi-square and Spearman for comparison of two qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively, were used. To determine the weight of each factor of MCSRS, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out using the maximum likelihood method for factor extraction and the varimax method for factor rotation. The adequacy of the factor analysis was checked by mean of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test and Bartlett sphericity test. The level of significance was set at a p-value of < 0.05.FINDINGS: The average degree of satisfaction was 4.55/5 (SD: 0.37). No statistically significant difference was observed between mothers' satisfaction according to mother level of study or mother's place of birth, while it changed significantly with age (p = 0.0398). Within the obstetric variables, satisfaction was significantly associated with spontaneous amniorrhexis, the duration of the second stage of delivery, and the Apgar value of the newborn at the first minute of life, and was independent of the number of previous pregnancies and deliveries, use of intrapartum oxytocin, epidural analgesia, episiotomy, the weight of the child at birth and type of breastfeeding. Furthermore, there was no relationship between the time of clamping and satisfaction (p = 0.5178).KEY CONCLUSIONS: Maternal satisfaction with the birth experience varies with the age of the childbearing woman, and some intrapartum factors and the result is not influenced by the time of clamping of the umbilical cord. Therefore, this component of the physiological management of childbirth provides additional benefits for the health of the neonate, without negative consequences on the final perception of the maternal health care received.IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: If there are no reasons that justify an early umbilical cord clamping, delaying it brings benefits to the neonate, without negatively affecting the maternal assessment of the experience of childbirth.PMID:36126369 | DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2022.103487…
    20 September 2022 12:00 – Blas Javier Orenga-Orenga
  • The hematological impact of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping in premature neonates: a randomized controlled trial

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Sep 19;22(1):714. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-05046-7.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The hematological impact of umbilical cord milking (UCM) was compared to that of delayed cord clamping (DCC) as a faster placental transfusion technique for preterm neonates (between 24 and 34 + 6 weeks gestation). A comparison of important neonatal morbidities was also made.METHODS: This was an open-label randomized trial conducted from June 8, 2017, to April 22, 2019. Two hundred patients with preterm deliveries (24 and 34 + 6 weeks gestation) were assigned to the DCC or UCM group at random at a ratio of 1:1. The study power was 80% for a difference in the hematocrit value of 3% and Hb value of one gram, and an alpha error of 0.05.RESULTS: The following variables were analyzed in the comparison of UCM vs. DCC: first draw hemoglobin: 17.0 ± 1.9 vs. 16.8 ± 1.8 gm/dl (95% CI -0.75-0.29, P 0.383); first draw hematocrit: 55.6 ± 6.4 vs. 55.2 ± 6.4% (95% CI -2.18-1.38, P 0.659); peak hematocrit: 56.9 ± 6.4 vs. 56.3 ± 6.7% (95% CI -2.41-1.26, P 0.537); the need for respiratory assistance (47% vs. 30%, P 0.020), inotropes (16% vs. 6%, P 0.040), and blood transfusion (26% vs. 12%, P 0.018); and the occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage (9% vs. 5%, P 0.407), necrotizing enterocolitis (6% vs. 2%, P 0.279), sepsis (25% vs. 15%, P 0.111), and neonatal death (13% vs. 4%, P 0.40).CONCLUSION: UCM facilitated a rapid transfer of placental blood equivalent to that of DCC for premature neonates. However, it resulted in increased rates of interventions and morbidities, especially in extremely preterm neonates.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The clinical trial was registered on May 10, 2017, with registration number (NCT03147846).PMID:36123638 | PMC:PMC9484179 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-05046-7…
    19 September 2022 12:00 – Hytham Atia
  • Midwives' decision-making process when a non-vigorous neonate is born - a Swedish qualitative interview study

    Midwifery. 2022 Nov;114:103455. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2022.103455. Epub 2022 Aug 18.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Midwives are often the first ones to make decisions when a neonate is unexpectedly born non-vigorous. This study aimed to understand how midwives reason and what they experience when deciding what to do when a non-vigorous neonate is born. In present practice, the decision to cut the umbilical cord early is strongly affected bythe decision that the neonate needs resuscitation. To better understand the decisions taken during the first minutes of the non-vigorous neonate’s life, this study focused on the midwives’ decision to cut the umbilical cord.DESIGN: A qualitative study with an inductive and descriptive design using the Critical Incident Technique was chosen to gain a more in-depth understanding of the factors influencing the midwife’s decision-making process concerning cutting the umbilical cord in a critical situation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and thematic analysis, as described by Braun and Clarke, was performed.SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Eligible study participants were midwives currently working in labour wards in Sweden.FINDINGS: In total, 14 midwives were interviewed between November 2019 and March 2020. The interviews rendered an understanding about midwives' decision-making on the timing of cord clamping in the non-vigorous neonates. An overarching theme was generated: "The balancing act of clamping the umbilical cord" which consisted of three themes, "Assessing the neonate in need of resuscitation", "Valuing own knowledge and experience" and "Influencing decision-making", and seven sub-themes. Many factors in addition to clinical reasoning influenced the midwives' decision-making processes. Feelings, intuition, and experience also had an effect to varying degrees.PMID:36103771 | DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2022.103455…
    14 September 2022 12:00 – Manuela Isacson
  • Delayed cord clamping practice at birth: A narrative review of literature

    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2022 Oct;277:116-121. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2022.08.024. Epub 2022 Sep 5.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Anaemia in infants is a major public health concern particularly in low and middle-income countries. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been advocated as a strategy to decrease iron deficiency anaemia in infants because of the benefits that come with placental transfusion. Despite the documented benefits of delayed cord clamping in preventing anaemia the current practices of delayed cord clamping by midwives and obstetricians across countries and in different contexts is unclear. This narrative review assesses the literature on delayed cord clamping practices published from 2013 to February 2022, in order to examine current practice in birth units globally, and with a focus in low and middle-income countries (LMICs).METHOD: A search of four bibliographic databases Medline, Scopus (Elsevier), ProQuest, CINAHL and two network and search engines, Wiley and Google Scholar, was undertaken from 2013 to February 2022 using key terms related to delayed cord clamping and immediate cord clamping. A snowball method as well as backward and forward reference checking was also undertaken.RESULTS: The search strategy identified 10 studies on umbilical cord clamping practices by midwives and obstetricians. Only two studies were conducted in low and middle-income countries.CONCLUSION: Despite the potential benefits of DCC in reducing anaemia, particularly in low and middle-income countries where the burden of anaemia is a public health concern, there is a paucity of literature on current DCC practices by obstetricians and midwives. Research to establish current DCC practices in these countries is needed to address this gap in the literature.PMID:36084387 | DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2022.08.024…
    9 September 2022 12:00 – Bupe Mwamba
  • Protocol for a Nested, Retrospective Study of the Australian Placental Transfusion Study Cohort

    Cureus. 2022 Aug 4;14(8):e27693. doi: 10.7759/cureus.27693. eCollection 2022 Aug.ABSTRACTBackground Neonates, particularly if born preterm or with congenital anomalies, are among the pediatric patients most likely to need blood transfusion. However, they are also particularly vulnerable to adverse consequences of blood transfusion. Aiming to clamp the umbilical cord for at least a minute after birth is a simple safe procedure that is being increasingly adopted worldwide, although may be associated with increased rates of polycythemia and jaundice. It may also reduce the proportion of preterm babies who need a blood transfusion. The mechanisms for this are not fully understood. Potential mechanisms could include an increased volume of blood transfusion from the placenta to the baby after birth, and an overall reduction in the severity of illness in the first weeks after birth, which could lead to fewer blood tests and greater tolerance of anemia, or enhanced erythropoiesis. Objectives To investigate the mechanism behind the reduced need for blood transfusions after deferral of cord clamping. Methodology This protocol outlines the methods and data analysis plan for a study using nested retrospective data from a large randomized trial combined with additional data collected from patient medical and pathology records. The additional data items to be collected all relate to the receipt of transfusion and the factors that affect the risk for transfusion in preterm babies. The analysis will include all randomized babies from Australia and New Zealand for whom data are available. Causal mediation analysis is planned to estimate the effects of mediators on the relationship between the timing of cord clamping and the need for blood transfusion. The analysis is designed to discern whether initial severity of illness or the magnitude of placental transfusion mediates red blood cell transfusion dependence. Anticipated outcomes and dissemination We expect the study will identify potential strategies for reducing blood transfusions and associated negative outcomes in preterm infants. This will be relevant to researchers, clinicians, and parents. The results will be disseminated through publications, presentations, and inclusion in evidence-based guidelines.PMID:36081962 | PMC:PMC9440991 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.27693…
    9 September 2022 12:00 – Ava G Tan-Koay
  • The effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on Newborn's oxygen saturation and sucking success in primiparous pregnant

    J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2022 Nov;48(11):2821-2829. doi: 10.1111/jog.15417. Epub 2022 Sep 5.ABSTRACTAIM: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of delayed umbilical cord clamping on the newborn's oxygen saturation and sucking success in primiparas.METHODS: The study was conducted based on the experimental model with a control group, between March 15-November 10, 2020. The sample of the study consisted of 101 primiparous pregnant (48 primiparous with delayed cord clamping within 1-3 min and 53 primiparous with early cord clamping within 1 min) (having no high-risk pregnancy, 38-42 weeks, vaginal birth) in Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form, the LATCH breastfeeding tool and the pulse oximetry. Statistical analyses were conducted using percentage distribution, arithmetic means, chi-square testing, and independent samples t-testing.RESULTS: Oxygen saturation values of newborns with delayed umbilical cord clamping were higher than those of newborns with early cord clamping. The saturation was first minute 66.43 versus 74.37, fifth minute 81.90 versus 88.60, tenth minute 91.77 versus 94.50 (p < 0.05). When compared to the group with early cord clamping, oxygen saturation is higher in the first by 11.95%, in the fifth by 8.18%, and in the tenth minute by 2.97% in the group with delayed cord clamping. The LATCH breastfeeding scores were found to be higher in the group with delayed cord clamping compared to the group with early cord clamping.CONCLUSION: It was determined that delayed cord clamping positively affected oxygen saturation values and sucking success in neonatal babies. Delayed umbilical cord clamping is an important issue that needs to be addressed in its different dimensions.PMID:36065164 | DOI:10.1111/jog.15417…
    6 September 2022 12:00 – Rumeysa Taşkin
  • Neonatal breast-suckling skills in the context of lactation and peripartum hormonal changes and additional factors-a pilot study

    Int Breastfeed J. 2022 Sep 1;17(1):66. doi: 10.1186/s13006-022-00508-2.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Childbirth and lactation are intricate processes, involving several hormones, the most important of which are prolactin (a protein hormone) and cortisol (one of the glucocorticoids). The early postpartum period is crucial for both mother and newborn and has an impact on the lactation and breastfeeding process.METHODS: The study included 78 patients who were admitted to the Gynecology-Obstetrics Clinical Hospital in Poznań for labor induction and/or in the active phase of the first labor stage. The levels of cortisol and prolactin in serum were assessed in these women during admission in labor, during the third labor stage, and on the second day postpartum. The levels of cortisol and prolactin in the umbilical cord serum were assessed immediately after cord clamping. The "Protocol for the assessment of breast-suckling skills" was used to assess the neonatal breast-suckling skills on the second day postpartum. Some additional parameters were evaluated in mothers via a telephone interview at three and six months postpartum. The study was conducted from January to August 2020, however the study was suspended during April-July 2020 due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which led to restrictions in the hospital limiting access to the hospital wards unless necessary.RESULTS: Early breastfeeding with skin-to-skin contact was associated with low levels of hormones, cortisol levels were lower in serum (p = 0.0108) and umbilical vein (p = 0.0273) in mothers who breastfed immediately after childbirth. At three months postpartum, 88% of the mothers who did not offer a pacifier to the child during the first few days of life breastfed the child naturally (p = 0.037), and at six months, 96% of those who did not offer a pacifier continued to breastfeed (p = 0.0008). Multiple, statistically significant correlations were observed between the variables assessed according to the "Protocol for the assessment of breast-suckling skills" and breastfeeding after three months.CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding immediately after childbirth, appropriate assessment of the breast-suckling skills of newborns, avoiding pacifiers and infant formula feeding, and offering support to new mothers in the early days after childbirth seem to be important factors for sustaining breastfeeding after three and six months of childbirth.PMID:36050767 | PMC:PMC9436720 | DOI:10.1186/s13006-022-00508-2…
    1 September 2022 12:00 – Katarzyna Maria Wszołek
  • Early essential newborn care for cesarean section newborns in China: study protocol for a multi-centered randomized controlled trial

    Trials. 2022 Aug 19;23(1):696. doi: 10.1186/s13063-022-06615-z.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Early essential newborn care (EENC) is a package of evidence-based and cost-effective interventions delivered around birth mainly including delayed cord clamping, immediate and sustained skin-to-skin contact, and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding. EENC is proven effective in promoting breastfeeding and improving women's and newborns' health. However, there is little evidence on implementation of EENC on newborns born by cesarean section in China. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of EENC intervention on rates of exclusive breastfeeding and early initiation of breastfeeding for cesarean section newborns in China.METHODS: This is a multi-centered, randomized controlled trial conducted in 4 tertiary hospitals in China. A total of 720 eligible women who will receive cesarean section are being randomized into four groups: control group (n=180), intervention group 1 (skin-to-skin contact for 30 min, n=180), intervention group 2 (skin-to-skin contact for 60 min, n=180), and intervention group 3 (skin-to-skin contact for 90 min, n=180). The control group will receive routine care, whereas the intervention groups will receive EENC with different duration of skin-to-skin contact. Demographic characteristics, clinical information, and breastfeeding outcomes will be collected. The primary outcome is rates of exclusive breastfeeding and early initiation of breastfeeding, and the secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and admissions.DISCUSSION: This study will provide evidence of the impact of EENC on improvement of breastfeeding outcomes and maternal and neonatal health for cesarean section newborns in China, and evidence-based recommendation to inform optimal duration of skin-to-skin contact for cesarean deliveries. The results of this study have potential to inform national-level guidelines and policy-making for optimizing EENC implementation for cesarean section newborns.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100048997. Retrospectively registered on 19 July 2021.PMID:35986372 | PMC:PMC9389737 | DOI:10.1186/s13063-022-06615-z…
    19 August 2022 12:00 – Xueyin Wang
  • Umbilical cord milking in nonvigorous infants: a cluster-randomized crossover trial

    Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Feb;228(2):217.e1-217.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.08.015. Epub 2022 Aug 13.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping and umbilical cord milking provide placental transfusion to vigorous newborns. Delayed cord clamping in nonvigorous newborns may not be provided owing to a perceived need for immediate resuscitation. Umbilical cord milking is an alternative, as it can be performed more quickly than delayed cord clamping and may confer similar benefits.OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that umbilical cord milking would reduce admission to the neonatal intensive care unit compared with early cord clamping in nonvigorous newborns born between 35 and 42 weeks' gestation.STUDY DESIGN: This was a pragmatic cluster-randomized crossover trial of infants born at 35 to 42 weeks' gestation in 10 medical centers in 3 countries between January 2019 and May 2021. The centers were randomized to umbilical cord milking or early cord clamping for approximately 1 year and then crossed over for an additional year or until the required number of consented subjects was reached. Waiver of consent as obtained in all centers to implement the intervention. Infants were eligible if nonvigorous at birth (poor tone, pale color, or lack of breathing in the first 15 seconds after birth) and were assigned to umbilical cord milking or early cord clamping according to their birth hospital randomization assignment. The baseline characteristics and outcomes were collected following deferred informed consent. The primary outcome was admission to the neonatal intensive care unit for predefined criteria. The main safety outcome was hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Data were analyzed by the intention-to-treat concept.RESULTS: Among 16,234 screened newborns, 1780 were eligible (905 umbilical cord milking, 875 early cord clamping), and 1730 had primary outcome data for analysis (97% of eligible; 872 umbilical cord milking, 858 early cord clamping) either via informed consent (606 umbilical cord milking, 601 early cord clamping) or waiver of informed consent (266 umbilical cord milking, 257 early cord clamping). The difference in the frequency of neonatal intensive care unit admission using predefined criteria between the umbilical cord milking (23%) and early cord clamping (28%) groups did not reach statistical significance (modeled odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.14). Umbilical cord milking was associated with predefined secondary outcomes, including higher hemoglobin (modeled mean difference between umbilical cord milking and early cord clamping groups 0.68 g/dL, 95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.05), lower odds of abnormal 1-minute Apgar scores (Apgar ≤3, 30% vs 34%, crude odds ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.92); cardiorespiratory support at delivery (61% vs 71%, modeled odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.99), and therapeutic hypothermia (3% vs 4%, crude odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.99). Moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was significantly less common with umbilical cord milking (1% vs 3%, crude odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.96). No significant differences were observed for normal saline bolus, phototherapy, abnormal 5-minute Apgar scores (Apgar ≤6, 15.7% vs 18.8%, crude odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.06), or a serious adverse event composite of death before discharge.CONCLUSION: Among nonvigorous infants born at 35 to 42 weeks' gestation, umbilical cord milking did not reduce neonatal intensive care unit admission for predefined criteria. However, infants in the umbilical cord milking arm had higher hemoglobin, received less delivery room cardiorespiratory support, had a lower incidence of moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and received less therapeutic hypothermia. These data may provide the first randomized controlled trial evidence that umbilical cord milking in nonvigorous infants is feasible, safe and, superior to early cord clamping.PMID:35970202 | PMC:PMC9877105 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2022.08.015…
    15 August 2022 12:00 – Anup C Katheria
  • Hemoglobin differences in twins are related to the time of cord clamping, not intertwin transfusion - a prospective cohort study

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Aug 5;22(1):619. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04942-2.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping increases placental transfusion. In vaginal deliveries higher hemoglobin concentrations are found in the second-born twin. We hypothesized it is unrelated to intertwin transfusion but to the time of cord clamping.METHODS: It was a prospective cohort study of 202 women delivering twins > 32 weeks of gestation. Monoamniotic pregnancy, antenatal intertwin transfusions, fetal demise or major abnormalities were excluded from the study. The time of cord clamping depended on the obstetrician's decision. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and reticulocyte count were measured at birth and during the second day of life.RESULTS: At birth, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in the first-born twins delivered with delayed than with early cord clamping. Higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were observed during the second day of life in all twins delivered with delayed cord clamping. The lowest levels were observed in twins delivered with early cord clamping. Infants delivered with delayed cord clamping were at a lower risk of respiratory disorders and NICU hospitalization.CONCLUSION: The observed differences in Hgb concentrations between the infants in a twin pregnancy are related to cord clamping time.PMID:35931974 | PMC:PMC9354348 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04942-2…
    5 August 2022 12:00 – Katarzyna Kosińska-Kaczyńska
  • A hybrid type I, multi-center randomized controlled trial to study the implementation of a method for Sustained cord circulation And VEntilation (the SAVE-method) of late preterm and term neonates: a study protocol

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jul 26;22(1):593. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04915-5.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: An intact umbilical cord allows the physiological transfusion of blood from the placenta to the neonate, which reduces infant iron deficiency and is associated with improved development during early childhood. The implementation of delayed cord clamping practice varies depending on mode of delivery, as well as gestational age and neonatal compromise. Emerging evidence shows that infants requiring resuscitation would benefit if respiratory support were provided with the umbilical cord intact. Common barriers to providing intact cord resuscitation is the availability of neonatal resuscitation equipment close to the mother, organizational readiness for change as well as attitudes and beliefs about placental transfusion within the multidisciplinary team. Hence, clinical evaluations of cord clamping practice should include implementation outcomes in order to develop strategies for optimal cord management practice.METHODS: The Sustained cord circulation And Ventilation (SAVE) study is a hybrid type I randomized controlled study combining the evaluation of clinical outcomes with implementation and health service outcomes. In phase I of the study, a method for providing in-bed intact cord resuscitation was developed, in phase II of the study the intervention was adapted to be used in multiple settings. In phase III of the study, a full-scale multicenter study will be initiated with concurrent evaluation of clinical, implementation and health service outcomes. Clinical data on neonatal outcomes will be recorded at the labor and neonatal units. Implementation outcomes will be collected from electronic surveys sent to parents as well as staff and managers within the birth and neonatal units. Descriptive and comparative statistics and regression modelling will be used for analysis. Quantitative data will be supplemented by qualitative methods using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach.DISCUSSION: The SAVE study enables the safe development and evaluation of a method for intact cord resuscitation in a multicenter trial. The study identifies barriers and facilitators for intact cord resuscitation. The knowledge provided from the study will be of benefit for the development of cord clamping practice in different challenging clinical settings and provide evidence for development of clinical guidelines regarding optimal cord clamping.TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT04070560 . Registered 28 August 2019.PMID:35883044 | PMC:PMC9315331 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04915-5…
    26 July 2022 12:00 – Katarina Ekelöf
  • Umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase and pH as predictors of perinatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies: a cohort study

    J Mother Child. 2022 Jul 20. doi: 10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a common cause of perinatal morbidity, mortality.OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pH as predictors of neonatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Present retrospective cohort study was conducted in the rural tertiary centre of Northern India over two years (January 2017-December 2018). Neonates delivered to 300 term (≥37 - ≤42 weeks) high-risk antenatal women were enrolled after fulfilling inclusion criteria. Immediately after delivery of a newborn by any mode, the segment of the umbilical cord (10 cm) was double clamped, cut, and arterial blood samples were taken for LDH and pH and were compared with neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 22.0 software.RESULTS: For all 300 neonates mean ± SD values of cord blood LDH and pH were 545.19 ± 391.93 U/L and 7.13 ± 0.15, respectively. High cord blood lactate and low pH values were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including neonatal resuscitation, NICU admission, complications and early neonatal deaths (p=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of cord blood LDH in the prediction of neonatal death was 100.00%, 53.17%, 100%, and pH was 93.75%, 53.17%, 99.34%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Cord blood lactate and pH help in the early prediction of neonatal outcomes, but cord blood lactate is a better predictor.PMID:35853688 | DOI:10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004…
    19 July 2022 12:00 – Naina Kumar
  • Resuscitation of Term Compromised and Asphyctic Newborns: Better with Intact Umbilical Cord?

    Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2022 Jun 23;82(7):706-718. doi: 10.1055/a-1804-3268. eCollection 2022 Jul.ABSTRACTThe authors hypothesize that particularly severely compromised and asphyctic term infants in need of resuscitation may benefit from delayed umbilical cord clamping (after several minutes). Although evidence is sparse, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms support this assumption. For this review the authors have analyzed the available research. Based on these data they conclude that it may be unfavorable to immediately clamp the cord of asphyctic newborns (e.g., after shoulder dystocia) although recommended in current guidelines to provide quick neonatological support. Compression of the umbilical cord or thorax obstructs venous flow to the fetus more than arterial flow to the placenta. The fetus is consequently cut off from a supply of oxygenated, venous blood. This may cause not only hypoxemia and consecutive hypoxia during delivery but possibly also hypovolemia. Immediate cord clamping may aggravate the situation of the already compromised newborn, particularly if the cord is cut before the lungs are ventilated. By contrast, delayed cord clamping leads to fetoplacental transfusion of oxygenated venous blood, which may buffer an existing acidosis. Furthermore, it may enhance blood volume by up to 20%, leading to higher levels of various blood components, such as red and white blood cells, thrombocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, immunoglobulins, and iron. In addition, the resulting increase in pulmonary perfusion may compensate for an existing hypoxemia or hypoxia. Early cord clamping before lung perfusion reduces the preload of the left ventricle and hinders the establishment of sufficient circulation. Animal models and clinical trials support this opinion. The authors raise the question whether it would be better to resuscitate compromised newborns with intact umbilical cords. Obstetric and neonatal teams need to work even closer together to improve neonatal outcomes.PMID:35815099 | PMC:PMC9262631 | DOI:10.1055/a-1804-3268…
    11 July 2022 12:00 – Friederike Ott
  • A clinical study of fetal outcome following early and delayed cord clamping in births associated with anemia in pregnancy

    J Family Med Prim Care. 2022 May;11(5):1789-1793. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_882_21. Epub 2022 May 14.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: As there is a risk for infant anaemia, early cord clamping which is usually performed at 10-15 seconds of delivery was changed to delayed cord clamping for at least for 30 seconds Delayed cord clamping (DCC) increases the blood volume and haemoglobin levels in newborns and reduces risk of iron deficiency anaemia in both term and preterm infants.Early clamping allows cord blood collection in benefit for transplantation of stem cells.RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To compare levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit and serum ferritin at birth and 4 weeks of age in babies as well as neonatal outcome following early and delayed cord clamping in births associated with anaemia in pregnancy.STUDY DESIGN: An observational study.PARTICIPANTS: Anaemic pregnant women with period of gestation 32-40 weeks admitted in labour room for delivery were enrolled. Intervention: Grouping of the patients was done according to the timing of the umbilical cord clamping. 1. Early cord clamping (< 60 seconds) 2. Delayed cord clamping (1 - 3 minutes) Of which 58 subjects were in ECC (early cord clamping)and 62 were in DCC (delayed cord clamping)group.RESULTS: There was no significance of ECC or DCC in developing polycythemia, IVH or hyperbilirubinemia or increased need of blood transfusion. The levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit and ferritin levels were showing significant increased among DCC as compared to ECC.CONCLUSION: Delayed cord clamping significantly increases the levels of haemoglobin, Serum ferritin and hematocrit at 4 weeks of age. It should be recommended in routine practice where it is not contraindicated especially in resource- poor settings.PMID:35800483 | PMC:PMC9254860 | DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_882_21…
    8 July 2022 12:00 – Lata Singh
  • Long-term impact of pre-incision antibiotics on children born by caesarean section: a longitudinal study based on UK electronic health records

    Health Technol Assess. 2022 Jun;26(30):1-160. doi: 10.3310/ZYZC8514.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Since changes in the national guidance in 2011, prophylactic antibiotics for women undergoing caesarean section are recommended prior to skin incision, rather than after the baby's umbilical cord has been clamped. Evidence from randomised controlled trials conducted outside the UK has shown that this reduces maternal infectious morbidity; however, the prophylactic antibiotics also cross the placenta, meaning that babies are exposed to them around the time of birth. Antibiotics are known to affect the gut microbiota of the babies, but the long-term effects of exposure to high-dose broad-spectrum antibiotics around the time of birth on allergy and immune-related diseases are unknown.OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether or not in-utero exposure to antibiotics immediately prior to birth compared with no pre-incisional antibiotic exposure increases the risk of (1) asthma and (2) eczema in children born by caesarean section.DESIGN: This was a controlled interrupted time series study.SETTING: The study took place in primary and secondary care.PARTICIPANTS: Children born in the UK during 2006-18 delivered by caesarean section were compared with a control cohort delivered vaginally.INTERVENTIONS: In-utero exposure to antibiotics immediately prior to birth.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Asthma and eczema in children in the first 5 years of life. Additional secondary outcomes, including other allergy-related conditions, autoimmune diseases, infections, other immune system-related diseases and neurodevelopmental conditions, were also assessed.DATA SOURCES: The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care databases and the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Previously published linkage strategies were adapted to link anonymised data on mothers and babies in these databases. Duplicate practices contributing to both THIN and the CPRD databases were removed to create a THIN-CPRD data set.RESULTS: In the THIN-CPRD and HES data sets, records of 515,945 and 3,945,351 mother-baby pairs were analysed, respectively. The risk of asthma was not significantly higher in children born by caesarean section exposed to pre-incision antibiotics than in children whose mothers received post-cord clamping antibiotics, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.05) for diagnosis of asthma in primary care and an incidence rate ratio of 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.11) for asthma resulting in a hospital admission. We also did not find an increased risk of eczema, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to1.03) and an incidence rate ratio of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.29) for diagnosis in primary care and hospital admissions, respectively.LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to ascertain the exposure to pre-incision antibiotics at an individual level. The maximum follow-up of children was 5 years.CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that the policy change from post-cord clamping to pre-incision prophylactic antibiotics for caesarean sections during 2006-18 had an impact on the incidence of asthma and eczema in early childhood in the UK.FUTURE WORK: There is a need for further research to investigate if pre-incision antibiotics have any impact on developing asthma and other allergy and immune-related conditions in older children.STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as researchregistry3736.FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 30. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.PMID:35781133 | DOI:10.3310/ZYZC8514…
    5 July 2022 12:00 – Dana Šumilo
  • A systematic review of newborn health interventions in humanitarian settings

    BMJ Glob Health. 2022 Jul;7(7):e009082. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2022-009082.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Almost half of the under-5 deaths occur in the neonatal period and most can be prevented with quality newborn care. The already vulnerable state of newborns is exacerbated in humanitarian settings. This review aims to assess the current evidence of the interventions being provided in these contexts, identify strategies that increase their utilisation and their effects on health outcomes in order to inform involved actors in the field and to guide future research.METHODS: Searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature in four databases and in relevant websites, for published studies between 1990 and 15 November 2021. Search terms were related to newborns, humanitarian settings, low-income and middle-income countries and newborn health interventions. Quality assessment using critical appraisal tools appropriate to the study design was conducted. Data were extracted and analysed using a narrative synthesis approach.RESULTS: A total of 35 articles were included in this review, 33 peer-reviewed and 2 grey literature publications. The essential newborn care (ENC) interventions reported varied across the studies and only three used the Newborn Health in Humanitarian Settings: Field Guide as a guideline document. The ENC interventions most commonly reported were thermal care and feeding support whereas delaying of cord clamping and administration of vitamin K were the least. Training of healthcare workers was the most frequent strategy reported to increase utilisation. Community interventions, financial incentives and the provision of supplies and equipment were also reported.CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence documenting the reality of newborn care in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries. There is a need to improve the reporting of these interventions, including when there are gaps in service provision. More evidence is needed on the strategies used to increase their utilisation and the effect on health outcomes.PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020199639.PMID:35777926 | PMC:PMC9252185 | DOI:10.1136/bmjgh-2022-009082…
    1 July 2022 12:00 – Mariana Rodo
  • Early vs. late umbilical cord clamping: the controversy

    J Physiol. 2022 Aug;600(15):3387-3389. doi: 10.1113/JP283266. Epub 2022 Jul 14.NO ABSTRACTPMID:35766121 | DOI:10.1113/JP283266…
    29 June 2022 12:00 – Kent L Thornburg
  • Quality improvement for neonatal resuscitation and delivery room care

    Semin Perinatol. 2022 Oct;46(6):151629. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151629. Epub 2022 May 21.ABSTRACTQuality improvement has become a foundation of neonatal care. Structured approaches to improvement can standardize practices, improve teamwork, engage families, and improve outcomes. The delivery room presents a unique environment for quality improvement; optimal delivery room care requires advanced preparation, adequately trained providers, and carefully coordinated team dynamics. In this article, we examine quality improvement for neonatal resuscitation. We review the published literature, focusing on reports targeting admission hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, and initial respiratory support. We discuss specific challenges related to delivery room quality improvement, including small numbers, data collection, and lack of benchmarking, and potential strategies to address them including simulation, checklists, and state and national collaboratives. We examine how quality improvement can target equity in delivery room outcomes, and explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on delivery room quality of care.PMID:35753831 | PMC:PMC9124044 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151629…
    26 June 2022 12:00 – Emily Whitesel
  • Delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping for near-term infants born to preeclamptic mothers; a randomized controlled trial

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jun 25;22(1):515. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04831-8.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping in preeclamptic mothers undergoing scheduled caesarean delivery regarding the maternal intra-operative blood loss and neonatal outcomes.METHODS: A clinical trial was conducted on 62 near-term preeclamptic mothers (36-38+6 weeks) who were planned for caesarean delivery. They were randomly assigned into two groups. The first group was the early cord clamping (ECC) group (n= 31), in which clamping the umbilical cord was within 15 seconds, while the second group was the delayed cord clamping (DCC) group (n= 31), in which clamping the umbilical cord was at 60 seconds. All patients were assessed for intra-operative blood loss and incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Otherwise, all neonates were assessed for APGAR scores, the need for the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission due to jaundice, and blood tests (haemoglobin, haematocrit. and serum bilirubin).RESULTS: There was not any significant difference between the two groups regarding the maternal estimated blood loss (P=0.673), the rates of PPH (P=0.1), post-delivery haemoglobin (P=0.154), and haematocrit values (P=0.092). Neonatal outcomes also were showing no significant difference regarding APGAR scores at the first minute (P=1) and after 5 minutes (P=0.114), day 1 serum bilirubin (P=0.561), day 3 serum bilirubin (P=0.676), and the rate of NICU admission (P=0.671). However, haemoglobin and haematocrit values were significantly higher in the DCC group than in the ECC group (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference between DCC and ECC regarding maternal blood loss. However, DCC has the advantage of significantly higher neonatal haemoglobin.TRIAL REGISTRATION: It was first registered at on 10/12/2019 with registration number NCT04193345.PMID:35752762 | PMC:PMC9233844 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04831-8…
    25 June 2022 12:00 – Ahmed Rashwan
  • Differential effects of delayed cord clamping on bilirubin levels in normal and diabetic pregnancies

    Eur J Pediatr. 2022 Aug;181(8):3111-3117. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04536-2. Epub 2022 Jun 25.ABSTRACTThe purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of delayed cord clamping on bilirubin levels and phototherapy rates in neonates of diabetic mothers. This was a prospective study that enrolled pregnant women without pregnancy complications and those with diabetes. Their neonates were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to delayed cord clamping. The main outcomes were the neonatal transcutaneous bilirubin values on 2-4 days postpartum and the rate of requiring phototherapy in infants. A total of 261 pregnant women were included in the final analysis (132 women with diabetic pregnancies and 129 women with normal pregnancies). In diabetic pregnancies, neonatal bilirubin levels on the 2-4 days postpartum and phototherapy rates were significantly higher in the delayed cord clamping group than in the immediate cord clamping group (7.65 ± 1.83 vs 8.25 ± 1.96, P = 0.039; 10.35 ± 2.23 vs 11.54 ± 2.56, P = 0.002; 11.54 ± 2.94 vs 12.83 ± 3.07 P = 0.024, 18.2% vs 6.3%, P = 0.042), while in normal pregnancies, there was no statistical difference in bilirubin values and phototherapy rates between the delayed cord clamping group and the immediate cord clamping group (P > 0.05). After receiving delayed cord clamping, bilirubin levels on the third postnatal day and the rate of requiring phototherapy in infants were higher in the diabetic pregnancy group than in the normal pregnancy group (10.35 ± 2.23 vs 11.54 ± 2.56, P = 0.013).CONCLUSION: Delayed cord clamping increased the risk of jaundice in newborns born to diabetic mothers, but had no effect in newborns from mothers with normal pregnancies. DCC may be a risk factor for increased bilirubin in infants of diabetic mothers.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04369313; date of registration: April 27, 2020 (retrospectively registered).WHAT IS KNOWN: • Delayed cord clamping had significant benefits for newborns by increasing neonatal hemoglobin levels and reducing the risk of neonatal anemia, etc. • Delayed cord clamping may lead to neonatal hyperemia, erythrocytosis, and hyperbilirubinemia, which increases the risk of neonatal jaundice.WHAT IS NEW: • Our trial focused on the differential effects of delayed cord clamping on jaundice in full-term newborns between diabetic pregnancies and normal pregnancies. And newborns of diabetic mothers who received delayed cord clamping had a significantly increased risk of jaundice compared to newborns with normal pregnancy. • Delayed cord clamping may be a risk factor for increased bilirubin levels in neonates of diabetic mothers.PMID:35751710 | DOI:10.1007/s00431-022-04536-2…
    25 June 2022 12:00 – Shuangjia Pan
  • Physiologically based cord clamping for infants ≥32+0 weeks gestation: A randomised clinical trial and reference percentiles for heart rate and oxygen saturation for infants ≥35+0 weeks gestation

    PLoS Med. 2022 Jun 23;19(6):e1004029. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1004029. eCollection 2022 Jun.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Globally, the majority of newborns requiring resuscitation at birth are full term or late-preterm infants. These infants typically have their umbilical cord clamped early (ECC) before moving to a resuscitation platform, losing the potential support of the placental circulation. Physiologically based cord clamping (PBCC) is clamping the umbilical cord after establishing lung aeration and holds promise as a readily available means of improving early newborn outcomes. In mechanically ventilated lambs, PBCC improved cardiovascular stability and reduced hypoxia. We hypothesised that PBCC compared to ECC would result in higher heart rate (HR) in infants needing resuscitation, without compromising safety.METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 4 July 2018 and 18 May 2021, infants born at ≥32+0 weeks' gestation with a paediatrician called to attend were enrolled in a parallel-arm randomised trial at 2 Australian perinatal centres. Following initial stimulation, infants requiring further resuscitation were randomised within 60 seconds of birth using a smartphone-accessible web link. The intervention (PBCC) was to establish lung aeration, either via positive pressure ventilation (PPV) or effective spontaneous breathing, prior to cord clamping. The comparator was early cord clamping (ECC) prior to resuscitation. The primary outcome was mean HR between 60 to 120 seconds after birth, measured using 3-lead electrocardiogram, extracted from video recordings blinded to group allocation. Nonrandomised infants had deferred cord clamping (DCC) ≥120 seconds in the observational study arm. Among 508 at-risk infants enrolled, 123 were randomised (n = 63 to PBCC, n = 60 to ECC). Median (interquartile range, IQR) for gestational age was 39.9 (38.3 to 40.7) weeks in PBCC infants and 39.6 (38.4 to 40.4) weeks in ECC infants. Approximately 49% and 50% of the PBCC and ECC infants were female, respectively. Five infants (PBCC = 2, ECC = 3, 4% total) had missing primary outcome data. Cord clamping occurred at a median (IQR) of 136 (126 to 150) seconds in the PBCC arm and 37 (27 to 51) seconds in the ECC arm. Mean HR between 60 to 120 seconds after birth was 154 bpm (beats per minute) for PBCC versus 158 bpm for ECC (adjusted mean difference -6 bpm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -17 to 5 bpm, P = 0.39). Among 31 secondary outcomes, postpartum haemorrhage ≥500 ml occurred in 34% and 32% of mothers in the PBCC and ECC arms, respectively. Two hundred ninety-five nonrandomised infants (55% female) with median (IQR) gestational age of 39.6 (38.6 to 40.6) weeks received DCC. Data from these infants was used to create percentile charts of expected HR and oxygen saturation in vigorous infants receiving DCC. The trial was limited by the small number of infants requiring prolonged or advanced resuscitation. PBCC may provide other important benefits we did not measure, including improved maternal-infant bonding and higher iron stores.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that PBCC resulted in similar mean HR compared to infants receiving ECC. The findings suggest that for infants ≥32+0 weeks' gestation who receive brief, effective resuscitation at closely monitored births, PBCC does not provide additional benefit over ECC (performed after initial drying and stimulation) in terms of key physiological markers of transition. PBCC was feasible using a simple, low-cost strategy at both cesarean and vaginal births. The percentile charts of HR and oxygen saturation may guide clinicians monitoring the transition of at-risk infants who receive DCC.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12618000621213.PMID:35737735 | PMC:PMC9269938 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1004029…
    23 June 2022 12:00 – Shiraz Badurdeen
  • Physiology of neonatal resuscitation: Giant strides with small breaths

    Semin Perinatol. 2022 Oct;46(6):151620. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151620. Epub 2022 May 21.ABSTRACTThe transition of a fetus to a newborn involves a sequence of well-orchestrated physiological events. Most neonates go through this transition without assistance but 5-10% may require varying degrees of resuscitative interventions at birth. The most crucial event during this transition is lung inflation with optimal concentrations of oxygen. Rarely, extensive resuscitation including chest compressions and medication may be required. In the past few decades, significant strides have been made in our understanding of the cardiorespiratory transition at birth from a fetus to a newborn and the subsequent resuscitation. This article reviews the physiology behind neonatal transition at birth and various interventions during neonatal resuscitation.PMID:35715254 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151620…
    17 June 2022 12:00 – Deepika Sankaran
  • A newborn's "life line" - A review of umbilical cord management strategies

    Semin Perinatol. 2022 Oct;46(6):151621. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151621. Epub 2022 May 21.ABSTRACTLiterature supporting various umbilical management strategies have increased substantially over the past decade. Delayed cord clamping and umbilical cord milking are increasing embraced by obstetricians and neonatologists, and multiple international governing bodies now endorse these practices. This review summarizes the benefits and limitations of the different umbilical cord management strategies for term, near-term, and preterm neonates. Additional studies are underway to elucidate the safety profile of these practices, long term outcomes, and variations within these strategies that could potentially augment the benefits.PMID:35697528 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151621…
    13 June 2022 12:00 – Jenny Koo
  • Gestational Age-Specific Nomogram of Transcutaneous Bilirubin in First 120 h of Life for Term and Late Preterm Indian Neonates

    J Trop Pediatr. 2022 Jun 6;68(4):fmac047. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmac047.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To create a nomogram based on transcutaneous bilirubin values (TCB) in first week of life for term and late preterm (>34 weeks) neonates.METHODS AND DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study.SETTING: Four tertiary-care teaching hospitals (one each in eastern and southern India, two in northern India) between February 2019 and March 2020.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2492 term and late preterm (>34 weeks) neonates.INTERVENTION: Bilirubin was measured by transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Drager JM-105, Germany) in all neonates in pre-specified times of the day, 12 hourly every day since birth till discharge between 48 and 72 h, and data were recorded in epochs of 6 hourly intervals. Post-discharge, all neonates were called for review in next 48 h.OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary-TCB in first week of life. Secondary-factors having significant association with significant hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy.RESULTS: Total of 2492 neonates (males 1303 and female 1189), with a total of 14 162 TCB recordings were analysed and mean hourly bilirubin (TCB) at hourly intervals till 120 h and then daily bilirubin values on Days 6 and 7 were tabulated. We have constructed hour-specific bilirubin nomogram with percentiles as per gestational age in term and near-term Indian neonates till 120 h of life. Amongst the known risk factors, delayed cord clamping, primipara and breastfeeding jaundice had significant association for hyperbilirubinaemia needing phototherapy.CONCLUSIONS: We have created gestation-specific nomogram of TCB levels in 6 hourly intervals for the first 120 postnatal hours, obtained from a large predominantly breast fed healthy, term and near-term Indian neonates.PMID:35666181 | DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmac047…
    6 June 2022 12:00 – Subhash Chandra Shaw
  • Implementation of Delayed Cord Clamping in public health facilities: a case study from India

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jun 1;22(1):457. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04771-3.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Global and country specific recommendations on Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) are available, though guidance on their implementation in program settings is lacking. In India, DCC (clamping not earlier than 1 min after birth) is a component in the package of services delivered as part of the India Newborn Action Plan (INAP) supported by Nutrition International (NI) in two states. The objective of this case study was to document the learnings from implementation of DCC in these two states and to understand the health system factors that affected its operationalization.METHODS: Mixed methods were followed. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Systems building blocks as a framework, 20 Key-Informant Interviews were conducted to explore facilitators and barriers to routine implementation of DCC in public health settings. Existing quantitative program data and secondary data from labour-room registers from eight NI- supported districts were analysed to assess the prevalence of DCC implementation in public health systems settings.RESULTS: A demonstrated commitment from the government to implement DCC at all delivery points in NI supported districts was observed. Funds were sufficient, trainings were optimal, knowledge of the health workforce was adequate and a recording mechanism was in place. According to record reviews, DCC was more likely to happen in facilities that provide Basic Emergency Obstetric services and among normal deliveries. It was less likely to be followed in babies delivered by Caesarean section (OR 0.03; 95%CI 0.02,0.05), birthweight < 2000 g (OR 0.22; 95%CI 0.12,0.47), multiple pregnancies (OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.05,0.63), birth asphyxia requiring resuscitation (0.37; 95%CI 0.26,0.52), and those delivered during day shift (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.40, 0.83).CONCLUSIONS: Wide coverage of DCC in public health settings in the two states was observed. Good governance, adequate funding, commitment of health workforce has likely contributed to its success in these contexts. These are critical elements to guide DCC implementation in India and for consideration in other settings.PMID:35650543 | PMC:PMC9158298 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04771-3…
    1 June 2022 12:00 – Archana Chowdhury
  • Quality newborn care in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea: measuring early newborn care practices and identifying opportunities for improvement

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jun 1;22(1):462. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04735-7.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Renewed attention and investment is needed to improve the quality of care during the early newborn period to address preventable newborn deaths and stillbirths in Papua New Guinea (PNG). We aimed to assess early newborn care practices and identify opportunities for improvement in one province (East New Britain) in PNG.METHODS: A mixed-methods study was undertaken in five rural health facilities in the province using a combination of facility audits, labour observations and qualitative interviews with women and maternity providers. Data collection took place between September 2019 and February 2020. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, whilst qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Data were triangulated by data source.RESULTS: Five facility audits, 30 labour observations (in four of the facilities), and interviews with 13 women and eight health providers were conducted to examine early newborn care practices. We found a perinatal mortality rate of 32.2 perinatal deaths per 1000 total births and several barriers to quality newborn care, including an insufficient workforce, critical infrastructure and utility constraints, and limited availability of essential newborn medicines and equipment. Most newborns received at least one essential newborn care practice in the first hour of life, such as immediate and thorough drying (97%).CONCLUSIONS: We observed high rates of essential newborn care practices including immediate skin-to-skin and delayed cord clamping. We also identified multiple barriers to improving the quality of newborn care in East New Britain, PNG. These findings can inform the development of effective interventions to improve the quality of newborn care. Further, this study demonstrates that multi-faceted programs that include increased investment in the health workforce, education and training, and availability of essential equipment, medicines, and supplies are required to improve newborn outcomes.PMID:35650540 | PMC:PMC9157041 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04735-7…
    1 June 2022 12:00 – Alyce N Wilson
  • Influence of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on the early prognosis of preterm infants with a gestational age of &lt;34 weeks: a Meta analysis

    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2022 May 15;24(5):492-499. doi: 10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2112088.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: To study the influence of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on the early prognosis of preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks.METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Weipu Database, and SinoMed were searched for randomized controlled trials on umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping in preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks published up to November 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two researchers independently performed literature screening, quality evaluation, and data extraction. Review Manger 5.4 was used for Meta analysis.RESULTS: A total of 11 articles were included in the analysis, with 1 621 preterm infants in total, among whom there were 809 infants in the umbilical cord milking group and 812 in the delayed cord clamping group. The Meta analysis showed that compared with delayed cord clamping, umbilical cord milking increased the mean blood pressure after birth (weighted mean difference=3.61, 95%CI: 0.73-6.50, P=0.01), but it also increased the incidence rate of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (RR=1.83, 95%CI: 1.08-3.09, P=0.02). There were no significant differences between the two groups in hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood transfusion rate, proportion of infants undergoing phototherapy, bilirubin peak, and incidence rates of complications such as periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis (P>0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Compared with delayed cord clamping, umbilical cord milking may increase the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks; however, more high-quality large-sample randomized controlled trials are needed for further confirmation.PMID:35644188 | PMC:PMC9154370 | DOI:10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2112088…
    1 June 2022 12:00 – Wei-Wei Jiang
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with an Intact Umbilical Cord

    Neoreviews. 2022 Jun 1;23(6):e388-e399. doi: 10.1542/neo.23-6-e388.ABSTRACTThe body of literature supporting different umbilical management strategies has increased over the past decade as the role of cord management in neonatal transition is realized. Multiple international governing bodies endorse delayed cord clamping, and this practice is now widely accepted by obstetricians and neonatologists. Although term and preterm neonates benefit in some ways from delayed cord clamping, additional research on variations in this practice, including resuscitation with an intact cord, aim to find the optimal cord management practice that reduces mortality and major morbidities.PMID:35641463 | DOI:10.1542/neo.23-6-e388…
    31 May 2022 12:00 – Jenny Koo
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated by amniotic band syndrome associated with deceased fetal umbilical cord following fetoscopic laser surgery

    J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2022 Jul;48(7):1989-1996. doi: 10.1111/jog.15281. Epub 2022 May 25.ABSTRACTFetoscopic laser surgery occasionally causes amniotic band syndrome, in which the disrupted amniotic membrane constricts fetal body parts, leading to functional or morphological loss. We report a case of fetal distress at 31 weeks of gestation in the larger surviving twin after fetoscopic laser surgery for selective intrauterine growth restriction, necessitating emergent cesarean section. Physical examination of the infant showed constriction rings caused by a disrupted amniotic membrane on the digits, and the distal part of the right index finger was necrotic because of tight strangulation by an amniotic band with the umbilical cord of the deceased smaller twin. Laboratory data showed severe coagulopathy, and the infant was diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Immediate treatment improved his condition. DIC may have been associated with the necrotic finger, which was strangulated by the umbilical cord of the deceased fetus, because neither maternal coagulopathy nor an underlying neonatal disorder was detected.PMID:35614528 | DOI:10.1111/jog.15281…
    25 May 2022 12:00 – Manabu Ogoyama
  • Management of Placental Transfusion to Neonates After Delivery

    Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Apr 1;139(4):693. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004740.NO ABSTRACTPMID:35594126 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004740…
    20 May 2022 12:00 – Henry Michael Lerner

ALtimetric score

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2017 on anemia is spread by media

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2015 on neurodevelopment is spread by media