Latest research on cord clamping

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We will continously blog on our own and others results on cord clamping, as well as other news related to the subject, such as umbilical cord milking and resuscitation.

Latest posts from the blog

The first author, Manuela Isacson called all labor departments in Sweden twice, and asked the 95 midwives about their cord clamping practice.

Now we publish the results:

INTRODUCTION The timing of cord clamping impacts children’s short- and long- term well-being. When making clinical decisions, midwives incorporate their tacit and professional knowledge, experience and current evidence. There appears to be a lack of knowledge regarding Swedish midwives’ management of the third stage of labor and cord clamping practice. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish midwives’ clinical practice concerning umbilical cord clamping and the third stage of labor in spontaneous vaginal births.
METHODS The study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey including 13 questions. Midwives were randomly selected from 48 births units in Sweden. Two midwives from each unit were interviewed. The primary outcome was timing of umbilical cord clamping practice in full-term infants. Secondary outcomes were the management of the third stage of labor including prophylactic use of synthetic oxytocin, the timing of cord clamping in preterm infants, controlled cord traction, uterine massage, and cord milking.
RESULTS Altogether, 95 midwives were interviewed. In full-term infants, all midwives preferred late cord clamping. Considerable heterogeneity was seen regarding the practices of synthetic oxytocin administration postpartum, controlled cord traction, uterine massage or cord milking, and cord clamping in preterm infants.
CONCLUSIONS Midwives in Sweden modify recommendations regarding delayed cord clamping in a way they might perceive as more natural and practical in their daily, clinical work. The study revealed a reluctance toward the administration of prophylactic oxytocin due to fear that the drug could pass to the infant. An overall large variation of the management of the third stage of labor was seen.
Read more:
Läs hela inlägget »
4 August 2021
New uptodate review on cord clamping
11 February 2017
In memory of Hans Rosling:


Latest posts on NEW research

Two of the persons involved in the development of Lifestart trolley ( has published a review in Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology.
"Abstract: The rationale for keeping the mother and her newborn together even when neonatal resuscitation is required is presented. The development of a customised mobile resuscitation trolley is detailed explaining how the resuscitation team can be provided with all the facilities of a standard resuscitation trolley to resuscitate the neonate at the mother’s side with an intact cord. Alternative low tech solutions which may be appropriate in low resource setting and with a low risk population are also described."

Läs hela inlägget »
9 July 2015
Delayed clamping vs. milking in preterm infants
12 June 2015
Review on delivery room management of newly born infants
23 May 2015
Cardiac changes during delayed cord clamping
3 May 2015
Delayed cord clamping with and without cord stripping: a prospective randomized trial of preterm neo
12 April 2015
Delayed cord clamping in South African neonates with expected low birthweight


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  • Umbilical cord milking in non-vigorous infants: A cluster-randomized crossover trial

    Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Aug 12:S0002-9378(22)00649-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.08.015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM) provide placental transfusion to vigorous newborns. Delayed cord clamping in non-vigorous newborns may not be provided due to perceived need for immediate resuscitation. UCM is an alternative since it can be performed more quickly than DCC and may confer similar benefits.OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that UCM would reduce admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) compared with early cord clamping (ECC) in non-vigorous newborns born between 35-42 weeks' gestation.STUDY DESIGN: A pragmatic cluster-randomized crossover trial of infants born at 35-42 weeks' gestation from 10 medical centers in 3 countries between January 2019 and May 2021. Centers were randomized to UCM or ECC for approximately one year and then crossed over for an additional year or until the required number of consented subjects was reached. Waiver of consent as obtained in all centers to implement the intervention. Infants were eligible if non-vigorous at birth (poor tone, pale color, or lack of breathing in the first 15 seconds after birth) and were assigned to UCM or ECC according to their birth hospital randomization assignment. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were collected following deferred informed consent. The primary outcome was admission to the NICU for predefined criteria. The main safety outcome was hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Data were analyzed by intention to treat.RESULTS: Among 16,234 screened newborns, 1780 were eligible (905 UCM, 875 ECC) and 1730 had primary outcome data for analysis (97% of eligible; 872 UCM, 858 ECC) via either informed consent (606 UCM, 601 ECC) or waiver of informed consent (266 UCM, 257 ECC). The difference in the frequency of NICU admission using predefined criteria between the UCM (23%) and ECC (28%) groups did not reach statistical significance (modeled OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.41-1.14). UCM was associated with predefined secondary outcomes including a higher hemoglobin (modeled mean difference between UCM and ECC groups 0.68 g/dL, 95% CI 0.31-1.05), lower odds of abnormal 1-minute Apgar scores (Apgar ≤3, 30% vs 34%, crude OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.56-0.92); cardiorespiratory support at delivery (61% vs 71%, modeled OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33-0.99) and therapeutic hypothermia (3% vs 4%, crude OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.33-0.99). Moderate-severe HIE was significantly less common with UCM (1% vs 3%, crude OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.96). No significant difference was observed for normal saline bolus, phototherapy, abnormal 5-minute Apgar scores (Apgar ≤6, 15.7% vs 18.8%, crude OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.62-1.06), or a serious adverse event composite of death before discharge.CONCLUSIONS: Among non-vigorous infants born at 35-42 weeks' gestation, UCM did not reduce NICU admission for predefined criteria. However, infants in the UCM arm had higher hemoglobin, received less delivery room cardiorespiratory support, had a lower incidence of moderate to severe HIE and received less therapeutic hypothermia. These data may provide the first randomized controlled trial evidence that UCM in non-vigorous infants is feasible, safe and superior to ECC.PMID:35970202 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2022.08.015…
    15 August 2022 12:00 – Anup C Katheria
  • Hemoglobin differences in twins are related to the time of cord clamping, not intertwin transfusion - a prospective cohort study

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Aug 5;22(1):619. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04942-2.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping increases placental transfusion. In vaginal deliveries higher hemoglobin concentrations are found in the second-born twin. We hypothesized it is unrelated to intertwin transfusion but to the time of cord clamping.METHODS: It was a prospective cohort study of 202 women delivering twins > 32 weeks of gestation. Monoamniotic pregnancy, antenatal intertwin transfusions, fetal demise or major abnormalities were excluded from the study. The time of cord clamping depended on the obstetrician's decision. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and reticulocyte count were measured at birth and during the second day of life.RESULTS: At birth, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in the first-born twins delivered with delayed than with early cord clamping. Higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were observed during the second day of life in all twins delivered with delayed cord clamping. The lowest levels were observed in twins delivered with early cord clamping. Infants delivered with delayed cord clamping were at a lower risk of respiratory disorders and NICU hospitalization.CONCLUSION: The observed differences in Hgb concentrations between the infants in a twin pregnancy are related to cord clamping time.PMID:35931974 | PMC:PMC9354348 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04942-2…
    5 August 2022 12:00 – Katarzyna Kosińska-Kaczyńska
  • A hybrid type I, multi-center randomized controlled trial to study the implementation of a method for Sustained cord circulation And VEntilation (the SAVE-method) of late preterm and term neonates: a study protocol

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jul 26;22(1):593. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04915-5.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: An intact umbilical cord allows the physiological transfusion of blood from the placenta to the neonate, which reduces infant iron deficiency and is associated with improved development during early childhood. The implementation of delayed cord clamping practice varies depending on mode of delivery, as well as gestational age and neonatal compromise. Emerging evidence shows that infants requiring resuscitation would benefit if respiratory support were provided with the umbilical cord intact. Common barriers to providing intact cord resuscitation is the availability of neonatal resuscitation equipment close to the mother, organizational readiness for change as well as attitudes and beliefs about placental transfusion within the multidisciplinary team. Hence, clinical evaluations of cord clamping practice should include implementation outcomes in order to develop strategies for optimal cord management practice.METHODS: The Sustained cord circulation And Ventilation (SAVE) study is a hybrid type I randomized controlled study combining the evaluation of clinical outcomes with implementation and health service outcomes. In phase I of the study, a method for providing in-bed intact cord resuscitation was developed, in phase II of the study the intervention was adapted to be used in multiple settings. In phase III of the study, a full-scale multicenter study will be initiated with concurrent evaluation of clinical, implementation and health service outcomes. Clinical data on neonatal outcomes will be recorded at the labor and neonatal units. Implementation outcomes will be collected from electronic surveys sent to parents as well as staff and managers within the birth and neonatal units. Descriptive and comparative statistics and regression modelling will be used for analysis. Quantitative data will be supplemented by qualitative methods using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach.DISCUSSION: The SAVE study enables the safe development and evaluation of a method for intact cord resuscitation in a multicenter trial. The study identifies barriers and facilitators for intact cord resuscitation. The knowledge provided from the study will be of benefit for the development of cord clamping practice in different challenging clinical settings and provide evidence for development of clinical guidelines regarding optimal cord clamping.TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT04070560 . Registered 28 August 2019.PMID:35883044 | PMC:PMC9315331 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04915-5…
    26 July 2022 12:00 – Katarina Ekelöf
  • Umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase and pH as predictors of perinatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies: a cohort study

    J Mother Child. 2022 Jul 20. doi: 10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a common cause of perinatal morbidity, mortality.OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pH as predictors of neonatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Present retrospective cohort study was conducted in the rural tertiary centre of Northern India over two years (January 2017-December 2018). Neonates delivered to 300 term (≥37 - ≤42 weeks) high-risk antenatal women were enrolled after fulfilling inclusion criteria. Immediately after delivery of a newborn by any mode, the segment of the umbilical cord (10 cm) was double clamped, cut, and arterial blood samples were taken for LDH and pH and were compared with neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 22.0 software.RESULTS: For all 300 neonates mean ± SD values of cord blood LDH and pH were 545.19 ± 391.93 U/L and 7.13 ± 0.15, respectively. High cord blood lactate and low pH values were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including neonatal resuscitation, NICU admission, complications and early neonatal deaths (p=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of cord blood LDH in the prediction of neonatal death was 100.00%, 53.17%, 100%, and pH was 93.75%, 53.17%, 99.34%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Cord blood lactate and pH help in the early prediction of neonatal outcomes, but cord blood lactate is a better predictor.PMID:35853688 | DOI:10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004…
    19 July 2022 12:00 – Naina Kumar
  • Resuscitation of Term Compromised and Asphyctic Newborns: Better with Intact Umbilical Cord?

    Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2022 Jun 23;82(7):706-718. doi: 10.1055/a-1804-3268. eCollection 2022 Jul.ABSTRACTThe authors hypothesize that particularly severely compromised and asphyctic term infants in need of resuscitation may benefit from delayed umbilical cord clamping (after several minutes). Although evidence is sparse, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms support this assumption. For this review the authors have analyzed the available research. Based on these data they conclude that it may be unfavorable to immediately clamp the cord of asphyctic newborns (e.g., after shoulder dystocia) although recommended in current guidelines to provide quick neonatological support. Compression of the umbilical cord or thorax obstructs venous flow to the fetus more than arterial flow to the placenta. The fetus is consequently cut off from a supply of oxygenated, venous blood. This may cause not only hypoxemia and consecutive hypoxia during delivery but possibly also hypovolemia. Immediate cord clamping may aggravate the situation of the already compromised newborn, particularly if the cord is cut before the lungs are ventilated. By contrast, delayed cord clamping leads to fetoplacental transfusion of oxygenated venous blood, which may buffer an existing acidosis. Furthermore, it may enhance blood volume by up to 20%, leading to higher levels of various blood components, such as red and white blood cells, thrombocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, immunoglobulins, and iron. In addition, the resulting increase in pulmonary perfusion may compensate for an existing hypoxemia or hypoxia. Early cord clamping before lung perfusion reduces the preload of the left ventricle and hinders the establishment of sufficient circulation. Animal models and clinical trials support this opinion. The authors raise the question whether it would be better to resuscitate compromised newborns with intact umbilical cords. Obstetric and neonatal teams need to work even closer together to improve neonatal outcomes.PMID:35815099 | PMC:PMC9262631 | DOI:10.1055/a-1804-3268…
    11 July 2022 12:00 – Friederike Ott
  • A clinical study of fetal outcome following early and delayed cord clamping in births associated with anemia in pregnancy

    J Family Med Prim Care. 2022 May;11(5):1789-1793. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_882_21. Epub 2022 May 14.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: As there is a risk for infant anaemia, early cord clamping which is usually performed at 10-15 seconds of delivery was changed to delayed cord clamping for at least for 30 seconds Delayed cord clamping (DCC) increases the blood volume and haemoglobin levels in newborns and reduces risk of iron deficiency anaemia in both term and preterm infants.Early clamping allows cord blood collection in benefit for transplantation of stem cells.RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To compare levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit and serum ferritin at birth and 4 weeks of age in babies as well as neonatal outcome following early and delayed cord clamping in births associated with anaemia in pregnancy.STUDY DESIGN: An observational study.PARTICIPANTS: Anaemic pregnant women with period of gestation 32-40 weeks admitted in labour room for delivery were enrolled. Intervention: Grouping of the patients was done according to the timing of the umbilical cord clamping. 1. Early cord clamping (< 60 seconds) 2. Delayed cord clamping (1 - 3 minutes) Of which 58 subjects were in ECC (early cord clamping)and 62 were in DCC (delayed cord clamping)group.RESULTS: There was no significance of ECC or DCC in developing polycythemia, IVH or hyperbilirubinemia or increased need of blood transfusion. The levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit and ferritin levels were showing significant increased among DCC as compared to ECC.CONCLUSION: Delayed cord clamping significantly increases the levels of haemoglobin, Serum ferritin and hematocrit at 4 weeks of age. It should be recommended in routine practice where it is not contraindicated especially in resource- poor settings.PMID:35800483 | PMC:PMC9254860 | DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_882_21…
    8 July 2022 12:00 – Lata Singh
  • Long-term impact of pre-incision antibiotics on children born by caesarean section: a longitudinal study based on UK electronic health records

    Health Technol Assess. 2022 Jun;26(30):1-160. doi: 10.3310/ZYZC8514.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Since changes in the national guidance in 2011, prophylactic antibiotics for women undergoing caesarean section are recommended prior to skin incision, rather than after the baby's umbilical cord has been clamped. Evidence from randomised controlled trials conducted outside the UK has shown that this reduces maternal infectious morbidity; however, the prophylactic antibiotics also cross the placenta, meaning that babies are exposed to them around the time of birth. Antibiotics are known to affect the gut microbiota of the babies, but the long-term effects of exposure to high-dose broad-spectrum antibiotics around the time of birth on allergy and immune-related diseases are unknown.OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether or not in-utero exposure to antibiotics immediately prior to birth compared with no pre-incisional antibiotic exposure increases the risk of (1) asthma and (2) eczema in children born by caesarean section.DESIGN: This was a controlled interrupted time series study.SETTING: The study took place in primary and secondary care.PARTICIPANTS: Children born in the UK during 2006-18 delivered by caesarean section were compared with a control cohort delivered vaginally.INTERVENTIONS: In-utero exposure to antibiotics immediately prior to birth.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Asthma and eczema in children in the first 5 years of life. Additional secondary outcomes, including other allergy-related conditions, autoimmune diseases, infections, other immune system-related diseases and neurodevelopmental conditions, were also assessed.DATA SOURCES: The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care databases and the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Previously published linkage strategies were adapted to link anonymised data on mothers and babies in these databases. Duplicate practices contributing to both THIN and the CPRD databases were removed to create a THIN-CPRD data set.RESULTS: In the THIN-CPRD and HES data sets, records of 515,945 and 3,945,351 mother-baby pairs were analysed, respectively. The risk of asthma was not significantly higher in children born by caesarean section exposed to pre-incision antibiotics than in children whose mothers received post-cord clamping antibiotics, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.05) for diagnosis of asthma in primary care and an incidence rate ratio of 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.11) for asthma resulting in a hospital admission. We also did not find an increased risk of eczema, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.94 to1.03) and an incidence rate ratio of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.29) for diagnosis in primary care and hospital admissions, respectively.LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to ascertain the exposure to pre-incision antibiotics at an individual level. The maximum follow-up of children was 5 years.CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that the policy change from post-cord clamping to pre-incision prophylactic antibiotics for caesarean sections during 2006-18 had an impact on the incidence of asthma and eczema in early childhood in the UK.FUTURE WORK: There is a need for further research to investigate if pre-incision antibiotics have any impact on developing asthma and other allergy and immune-related conditions in older children.STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as researchregistry3736.FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 30. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.PMID:35781133 | DOI:10.3310/ZYZC8514…
    5 July 2022 12:00 – Dana Šumilo
  • A systematic review of newborn health interventions in humanitarian settings

    BMJ Glob Health. 2022 Jul;7(7):e009082. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2022-009082.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Almost half of the under-5 deaths occur in the neonatal period and most can be prevented with quality newborn care. The already vulnerable state of newborns is exacerbated in humanitarian settings. This review aims to assess the current evidence of the interventions being provided in these contexts, identify strategies that increase their utilisation and their effects on health outcomes in order to inform involved actors in the field and to guide future research.METHODS: Searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature in four databases and in relevant websites, for published studies between 1990 and 15 November 2021. Search terms were related to newborns, humanitarian settings, low-income and middle-income countries and newborn health interventions. Quality assessment using critical appraisal tools appropriate to the study design was conducted. Data were extracted and analysed using a narrative synthesis approach.RESULTS: A total of 35 articles were included in this review, 33 peer-reviewed and 2 grey literature publications. The essential newborn care (ENC) interventions reported varied across the studies and only three used the Newborn Health in Humanitarian Settings: Field Guide as a guideline document. The ENC interventions most commonly reported were thermal care and feeding support whereas delaying of cord clamping and administration of vitamin K were the least. Training of healthcare workers was the most frequent strategy reported to increase utilisation. Community interventions, financial incentives and the provision of supplies and equipment were also reported.CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence documenting the reality of newborn care in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries. There is a need to improve the reporting of these interventions, including when there are gaps in service provision. More evidence is needed on the strategies used to increase their utilisation and the effect on health outcomes.PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020199639.PMID:35777926 | PMC:PMC9252185 | DOI:10.1136/bmjgh-2022-009082…
    1 July 2022 12:00 – Mariana Rodo
  • Early vs. late umbilical cord clamping: the controversy

    J Physiol. 2022 Aug;600(15):3387-3389. doi: 10.1113/JP283266. Epub 2022 Jul 14.NO ABSTRACTPMID:35766121 | DOI:10.1113/JP283266…
    29 June 2022 12:00 – Kent L Thornburg
  • Quality improvement for neonatal resuscitation and delivery room care

    Semin Perinatol. 2022 May 21:151629. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151629. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTQuality improvement has become a foundation of neonatal care. Structured approaches to improvement can standardize practices, improve teamwork, engage families, and improve outcomes. The delivery room presents a unique environment for quality improvement; optimal delivery room care requires advanced preparation, adequately trained providers, and carefully coordinated team dynamics. In this article, we examine quality improvement for neonatal resuscitation. We review the published literature, focusing on reports targeting admission hypothermia, delayed cord clamping, and initial respiratory support. We discuss specific challenges related to delivery room quality improvement, including small numbers, data collection, and lack of benchmarking, and potential strategies to address them including simulation, checklists, and state and national collaboratives. We examine how quality improvement can target equity in delivery room outcomes, and explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on delivery room quality of care.PMID:35753831 | PMC:PMC9124044 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151629…
    26 June 2022 12:00 – Emily Whitesel
  • Delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping for near-term infants born to preeclamptic mothers; a randomized controlled trial

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jun 25;22(1):515. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04831-8.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping in preeclamptic mothers undergoing scheduled caesarean delivery regarding the maternal intra-operative blood loss and neonatal outcomes.METHODS: A clinical trial was conducted on 62 near-term preeclamptic mothers (36-38+6 weeks) who were planned for caesarean delivery. They were randomly assigned into two groups. The first group was the early cord clamping (ECC) group (n= 31), in which clamping the umbilical cord was within 15 seconds, while the second group was the delayed cord clamping (DCC) group (n= 31), in which clamping the umbilical cord was at 60 seconds. All patients were assessed for intra-operative blood loss and incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Otherwise, all neonates were assessed for APGAR scores, the need for the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission due to jaundice, and blood tests (haemoglobin, haematocrit. and serum bilirubin).RESULTS: There was not any significant difference between the two groups regarding the maternal estimated blood loss (P=0.673), the rates of PPH (P=0.1), post-delivery haemoglobin (P=0.154), and haematocrit values (P=0.092). Neonatal outcomes also were showing no significant difference regarding APGAR scores at the first minute (P=1) and after 5 minutes (P=0.114), day 1 serum bilirubin (P=0.561), day 3 serum bilirubin (P=0.676), and the rate of NICU admission (P=0.671). However, haemoglobin and haematocrit values were significantly higher in the DCC group than in the ECC group (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference between DCC and ECC regarding maternal blood loss. However, DCC has the advantage of significantly higher neonatal haemoglobin.TRIAL REGISTRATION: It was first registered at on 10/12/2019 with registration number NCT04193345.PMID:35752762 | PMC:PMC9233844 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04831-8…
    25 June 2022 12:00 – Ahmed Rashwan
  • Differential effects of delayed cord clamping on bilirubin levels in normal and diabetic pregnancies

    Eur J Pediatr. 2022 Aug;181(8):3111-3117. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04536-2. Epub 2022 Jun 25.ABSTRACTThe purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of delayed cord clamping on bilirubin levels and phototherapy rates in neonates of diabetic mothers. This was a prospective study that enrolled pregnant women without pregnancy complications and those with diabetes. Their neonates were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to delayed cord clamping. The main outcomes were the neonatal transcutaneous bilirubin values on 2-4 days postpartum and the rate of requiring phototherapy in infants. A total of 261 pregnant women were included in the final analysis (132 women with diabetic pregnancies and 129 women with normal pregnancies). In diabetic pregnancies, neonatal bilirubin levels on the 2-4 days postpartum and phototherapy rates were significantly higher in the delayed cord clamping group than in the immediate cord clamping group (7.65 ± 1.83 vs 8.25 ± 1.96, P = 0.039; 10.35 ± 2.23 vs 11.54 ± 2.56, P = 0.002; 11.54 ± 2.94 vs 12.83 ± 3.07 P = 0.024, 18.2% vs 6.3%, P = 0.042), while in normal pregnancies, there was no statistical difference in bilirubin values and phototherapy rates between the delayed cord clamping group and the immediate cord clamping group (P > 0.05). After receiving delayed cord clamping, bilirubin levels on the third postnatal day and the rate of requiring phototherapy in infants were higher in the diabetic pregnancy group than in the normal pregnancy group (10.35 ± 2.23 vs 11.54 ± 2.56, P = 0.013).CONCLUSION: Delayed cord clamping increased the risk of jaundice in newborns born to diabetic mothers, but had no effect in newborns from mothers with normal pregnancies. DCC may be a risk factor for increased bilirubin in infants of diabetic mothers.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04369313; date of registration: April 27, 2020 (retrospectively registered).WHAT IS KNOWN: • Delayed cord clamping had significant benefits for newborns by increasing neonatal hemoglobin levels and reducing the risk of neonatal anemia, etc. • Delayed cord clamping may lead to neonatal hyperemia, erythrocytosis, and hyperbilirubinemia, which increases the risk of neonatal jaundice.WHAT IS NEW: • Our trial focused on the differential effects of delayed cord clamping on jaundice in full-term newborns between diabetic pregnancies and normal pregnancies. And newborns of diabetic mothers who received delayed cord clamping had a significantly increased risk of jaundice compared to newborns with normal pregnancy. • Delayed cord clamping may be a risk factor for increased bilirubin levels in neonates of diabetic mothers.PMID:35751710 | DOI:10.1007/s00431-022-04536-2…
    25 June 2022 12:00 – Shuangjia Pan
  • Physiologically based cord clamping for infants ≥32+0 weeks gestation: A randomised clinical trial and reference percentiles for heart rate and oxygen saturation for infants ≥35+0 weeks gestation

    PLoS Med. 2022 Jun 23;19(6):e1004029. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1004029. eCollection 2022 Jun.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Globally, the majority of newborns requiring resuscitation at birth are full term or late-preterm infants. These infants typically have their umbilical cord clamped early (ECC) before moving to a resuscitation platform, losing the potential support of the placental circulation. Physiologically based cord clamping (PBCC) is clamping the umbilical cord after establishing lung aeration and holds promise as a readily available means of improving early newborn outcomes. In mechanically ventilated lambs, PBCC improved cardiovascular stability and reduced hypoxia. We hypothesised that PBCC compared to ECC would result in higher heart rate (HR) in infants needing resuscitation, without compromising safety.METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 4 July 2018 and 18 May 2021, infants born at ≥32+0 weeks' gestation with a paediatrician called to attend were enrolled in a parallel-arm randomised trial at 2 Australian perinatal centres. Following initial stimulation, infants requiring further resuscitation were randomised within 60 seconds of birth using a smartphone-accessible web link. The intervention (PBCC) was to establish lung aeration, either via positive pressure ventilation (PPV) or effective spontaneous breathing, prior to cord clamping. The comparator was early cord clamping (ECC) prior to resuscitation. The primary outcome was mean HR between 60 to 120 seconds after birth, measured using 3-lead electrocardiogram, extracted from video recordings blinded to group allocation. Nonrandomised infants had deferred cord clamping (DCC) ≥120 seconds in the observational study arm. Among 508 at-risk infants enrolled, 123 were randomised (n = 63 to PBCC, n = 60 to ECC). Median (interquartile range, IQR) for gestational age was 39.9 (38.3 to 40.7) weeks in PBCC infants and 39.6 (38.4 to 40.4) weeks in ECC infants. Approximately 49% and 50% of the PBCC and ECC infants were female, respectively. Five infants (PBCC = 2, ECC = 3, 4% total) had missing primary outcome data. Cord clamping occurred at a median (IQR) of 136 (126 to 150) seconds in the PBCC arm and 37 (27 to 51) seconds in the ECC arm. Mean HR between 60 to 120 seconds after birth was 154 bpm (beats per minute) for PBCC versus 158 bpm for ECC (adjusted mean difference -6 bpm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -17 to 5 bpm, P = 0.39). Among 31 secondary outcomes, postpartum haemorrhage ≥500 ml occurred in 34% and 32% of mothers in the PBCC and ECC arms, respectively. Two hundred ninety-five nonrandomised infants (55% female) with median (IQR) gestational age of 39.6 (38.6 to 40.6) weeks received DCC. Data from these infants was used to create percentile charts of expected HR and oxygen saturation in vigorous infants receiving DCC. The trial was limited by the small number of infants requiring prolonged or advanced resuscitation. PBCC may provide other important benefits we did not measure, including improved maternal-infant bonding and higher iron stores.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that PBCC resulted in similar mean HR compared to infants receiving ECC. The findings suggest that for infants ≥32+0 weeks' gestation who receive brief, effective resuscitation at closely monitored births, PBCC does not provide additional benefit over ECC (performed after initial drying and stimulation) in terms of key physiological markers of transition. PBCC was feasible using a simple, low-cost strategy at both cesarean and vaginal births. The percentile charts of HR and oxygen saturation may guide clinicians monitoring the transition of at-risk infants who receive DCC.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12618000621213.PMID:35737735 | PMC:PMC9269938 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1004029…
    23 June 2022 12:00 – Shiraz Badurdeen
  • Physiology of neonatal resuscitation: Giant strides with small breaths

    Semin Perinatol. 2022 May 21:151620. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151620. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe transition of a fetus to a newborn involves a sequence of well-orchestrated physiological events. Most neonates go through this transition without assistance but 5-10% may require varying degrees of resuscitative interventions at birth. The most crucial event during this transition is lung inflation with optimal concentrations of oxygen. Rarely, extensive resuscitation including chest compressions and medication may be required. In the past few decades, significant strides have been made in our understanding of the cardiorespiratory transition at birth from a fetus to a newborn and the subsequent resuscitation. This article reviews the physiology behind neonatal transition at birth and various interventions during neonatal resuscitation.PMID:35715254 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151620…
    17 June 2022 12:00 – Deepika Sankaran
  • A newborn's "life line" - A review of umbilical cord management strategies

    Semin Perinatol. 2022 May 21:151621. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151621. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLiterature supporting various umbilical management strategies have increased substantially over the past decade. Delayed cord clamping and umbilical cord milking are increasing embraced by obstetricians and neonatologists, and multiple international governing bodies now endorse these practices. This review summarizes the benefits and limitations of the different umbilical cord management strategies for term, near-term, and preterm neonates. Additional studies are underway to elucidate the safety profile of these practices, long term outcomes, and variations within these strategies that could potentially augment the benefits.PMID:35697528 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151621…
    13 June 2022 12:00 – Jenny Koo
  • Gestational Age-Specific Nomogram of Transcutaneous Bilirubin in First 120 h of Life for Term and Late Preterm Indian Neonates

    J Trop Pediatr. 2022 Jun 6;68(4):fmac047. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmac047.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To create a nomogram based on transcutaneous bilirubin values (TCB) in first week of life for term and late preterm (>34 weeks) neonates.METHODS AND DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study.SETTING: Four tertiary-care teaching hospitals (one each in eastern and southern India, two in northern India) between February 2019 and March 2020.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2492 term and late preterm (>34 weeks) neonates.INTERVENTION: Bilirubin was measured by transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Drager JM-105, Germany) in all neonates in pre-specified times of the day, 12 hourly every day since birth till discharge between 48 and 72 h, and data were recorded in epochs of 6 hourly intervals. Post-discharge, all neonates were called for review in next 48 h.OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary-TCB in first week of life. Secondary-factors having significant association with significant hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy.RESULTS: Total of 2492 neonates (males 1303 and female 1189), with a total of 14 162 TCB recordings were analysed and mean hourly bilirubin (TCB) at hourly intervals till 120 h and then daily bilirubin values on Days 6 and 7 were tabulated. We have constructed hour-specific bilirubin nomogram with percentiles as per gestational age in term and near-term Indian neonates till 120 h of life. Amongst the known risk factors, delayed cord clamping, primipara and breastfeeding jaundice had significant association for hyperbilirubinaemia needing phototherapy.CONCLUSIONS: We have created gestation-specific nomogram of TCB levels in 6 hourly intervals for the first 120 postnatal hours, obtained from a large predominantly breast fed healthy, term and near-term Indian neonates.PMID:35666181 | DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmac047…
    6 June 2022 12:00 – Subhash Chandra Shaw
  • Implementation of Delayed Cord Clamping in public health facilities: a case study from India

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jun 1;22(1):457. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04771-3.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Global and country specific recommendations on Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) are available, though guidance on their implementation in program settings is lacking. In India, DCC (clamping not earlier than 1 min after birth) is a component in the package of services delivered as part of the India Newborn Action Plan (INAP) supported by Nutrition International (NI) in two states. The objective of this case study was to document the learnings from implementation of DCC in these two states and to understand the health system factors that affected its operationalization.METHODS: Mixed methods were followed. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Systems building blocks as a framework, 20 Key-Informant Interviews were conducted to explore facilitators and barriers to routine implementation of DCC in public health settings. Existing quantitative program data and secondary data from labour-room registers from eight NI- supported districts were analysed to assess the prevalence of DCC implementation in public health systems settings.RESULTS: A demonstrated commitment from the government to implement DCC at all delivery points in NI supported districts was observed. Funds were sufficient, trainings were optimal, knowledge of the health workforce was adequate and a recording mechanism was in place. According to record reviews, DCC was more likely to happen in facilities that provide Basic Emergency Obstetric services and among normal deliveries. It was less likely to be followed in babies delivered by Caesarean section (OR 0.03; 95%CI 0.02,0.05), birthweight < 2000 g (OR 0.22; 95%CI 0.12,0.47), multiple pregnancies (OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.05,0.63), birth asphyxia requiring resuscitation (0.37; 95%CI 0.26,0.52), and those delivered during day shift (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.40, 0.83).CONCLUSIONS: Wide coverage of DCC in public health settings in the two states was observed. Good governance, adequate funding, commitment of health workforce has likely contributed to its success in these contexts. These are critical elements to guide DCC implementation in India and for consideration in other settings.PMID:35650543 | PMC:PMC9158298 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04771-3…
    1 June 2022 12:00 – Archana Chowdhury
  • Quality newborn care in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea: measuring early newborn care practices and identifying opportunities for improvement

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jun 1;22(1):462. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04735-7.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Renewed attention and investment is needed to improve the quality of care during the early newborn period to address preventable newborn deaths and stillbirths in Papua New Guinea (PNG). We aimed to assess early newborn care practices and identify opportunities for improvement in one province (East New Britain) in PNG.METHODS: A mixed-methods study was undertaken in five rural health facilities in the province using a combination of facility audits, labour observations and qualitative interviews with women and maternity providers. Data collection took place between September 2019 and February 2020. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, whilst qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Data were triangulated by data source.RESULTS: Five facility audits, 30 labour observations (in four of the facilities), and interviews with 13 women and eight health providers were conducted to examine early newborn care practices. We found a perinatal mortality rate of 32.2 perinatal deaths per 1000 total births and several barriers to quality newborn care, including an insufficient workforce, critical infrastructure and utility constraints, and limited availability of essential newborn medicines and equipment. Most newborns received at least one essential newborn care practice in the first hour of life, such as immediate and thorough drying (97%).CONCLUSIONS: We observed high rates of essential newborn care practices including immediate skin-to-skin and delayed cord clamping. We also identified multiple barriers to improving the quality of newborn care in East New Britain, PNG. These findings can inform the development of effective interventions to improve the quality of newborn care. Further, this study demonstrates that multi-faceted programs that include increased investment in the health workforce, education and training, and availability of essential equipment, medicines, and supplies are required to improve newborn outcomes.PMID:35650540 | PMC:PMC9157041 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-022-04735-7…
    1 June 2022 12:00 – Alyce N Wilson
  • Influence of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on the early prognosis of preterm infants with a gestational age of &lt;34 weeks: a Meta analysis

    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2022 May 15;24(5):492-499. doi: 10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2112088.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: To study the influence of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on the early prognosis of preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks.METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Weipu Database, and SinoMed were searched for randomized controlled trials on umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping in preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks published up to November 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two researchers independently performed literature screening, quality evaluation, and data extraction. Review Manger 5.4 was used for Meta analysis.RESULTS: A total of 11 articles were included in the analysis, with 1 621 preterm infants in total, among whom there were 809 infants in the umbilical cord milking group and 812 in the delayed cord clamping group. The Meta analysis showed that compared with delayed cord clamping, umbilical cord milking increased the mean blood pressure after birth (weighted mean difference=3.61, 95%CI: 0.73-6.50, P=0.01), but it also increased the incidence rate of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (RR=1.83, 95%CI: 1.08-3.09, P=0.02). There were no significant differences between the two groups in hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood transfusion rate, proportion of infants undergoing phototherapy, bilirubin peak, and incidence rates of complications such as periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis (P>0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Compared with delayed cord clamping, umbilical cord milking may increase the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks; however, more high-quality large-sample randomized controlled trials are needed for further confirmation.PMID:35644188 | PMC:PMC9154370 | DOI:10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2112088…
    1 June 2022 12:00 – Wei-Wei Jiang
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation with an Intact Umbilical Cord

    Neoreviews. 2022 Jun 1;23(6):e388-e399. doi: 10.1542/neo.23-6-e388.ABSTRACTThe body of literature supporting different umbilical management strategies has increased over the past decade as the role of cord management in neonatal transition is realized. Multiple international governing bodies endorse delayed cord clamping, and this practice is now widely accepted by obstetricians and neonatologists. Although term and preterm neonates benefit in some ways from delayed cord clamping, additional research on variations in this practice, including resuscitation with an intact cord, aim to find the optimal cord management practice that reduces mortality and major morbidities.PMID:35641463 | DOI:10.1542/neo.23-6-e388…
    31 May 2022 12:00 – Jenny Koo
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated by amniotic band syndrome associated with deceased fetal umbilical cord following fetoscopic laser surgery

    J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2022 Jul;48(7):1989-1996. doi: 10.1111/jog.15281. Epub 2022 May 25.ABSTRACTFetoscopic laser surgery occasionally causes amniotic band syndrome, in which the disrupted amniotic membrane constricts fetal body parts, leading to functional or morphological loss. We report a case of fetal distress at 31 weeks of gestation in the larger surviving twin after fetoscopic laser surgery for selective intrauterine growth restriction, necessitating emergent cesarean section. Physical examination of the infant showed constriction rings caused by a disrupted amniotic membrane on the digits, and the distal part of the right index finger was necrotic because of tight strangulation by an amniotic band with the umbilical cord of the deceased smaller twin. Laboratory data showed severe coagulopathy, and the infant was diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Immediate treatment improved his condition. DIC may have been associated with the necrotic finger, which was strangulated by the umbilical cord of the deceased fetus, because neither maternal coagulopathy nor an underlying neonatal disorder was detected.PMID:35614528 | DOI:10.1111/jog.15281…
    25 May 2022 12:00 – Manabu Ogoyama
  • Management of Placental Transfusion to Neonates After Delivery

    Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Apr 1;139(4):693. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004740.NO ABSTRACTPMID:35594126 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004740…
    20 May 2022 12:00 – Henry Michael Lerner
  • Sustaining immediate newborn care processes (delayed cord clamping and early breastfeeding initiation) in the delivery room: a quality improvement study

    BMJ Open Qual. 2022 May;11(Suppl 1):e001705. doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001705.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Immediate newborn care processes like delayed cord clamping (DCC) and early breastfeeding initiation (EBFI) in the delivery room have several benefits including survival. Despite the evidence, the practices have not been widely adopted. We used a point-of-care quality improvement (QI) to implement and sustain these two immediate newborn care processes in our delivery room over a period of 2 years through a series of plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles.METHODS: All neonates above 30 weeks of gestation irrespective of the need for resuscitation except Rh-isoimmunisation were eligible for DCC. Neonates >35 weeks not requiring respiratory support or resuscitation were eligible for EBFI. The root causes of gaps in the quality were analysed by fishbone analysis. The key quantitative outcome measure was the percentage of eligible deliveries in which DCC and EBFI were done. Duration of DCC was also recorded in the sustenance phase. This implementation was done through three PDSA cycles and the practices were sustained for 2 years.RESULTS: A total of 770 deliveries were part of this QI study from October 2018 to December 2020. There was a significant improvement in DCC (median) from a baseline of 25% to 96% over a 2-year period. Sensitisation, making DCC part of pre-birth checklist and recording outcomes on a dashboard daily helped to implement and sustain the processes over 2 years. As a co-process, EBFI improved (median) from a baseline of 50% to 97% without any major intervention in the system.CONCLUSIONS: Immediate newborn care processes could be sustained by making them part of pre-birth preparation and dashboard recording by a QI initiative without any additional resources.PMID:35584842 | PMC:PMC9119176 | DOI:10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001705…
    18 May 2022 12:00 – Pranavi Nagendla
  • Integrated review of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of maternity health care professionals concerning umbilical cord clamping

    Birth. 2022 May 18. doi: 10.1111/birt.12647. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Umbilical cord clamp timing has implications for newborn health, which include increased iron stores up to 6 months of age. National and International cord clamping guidelines differ as do health professionals' practices. The rationale for differences in cord clamping practice is unclear.AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Studies on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of maternity health care professionals about cord clamp timing were synthesized. Similarities and differences between professional groups and understanding of the optimal timing of cord clamp timing for term newborns were compared.METHODS: An integrative review was undertaken. PubMed, Scopus, MIDIRS, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were searched. Publication date limits were set between January 2007 and December 2020. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tools.RESULTS: Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria, as they included primary research studies that investigated maternity health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about umbilical cord clamping, and were written in English. Four main subject areas were identified: a) knowledge of optimal cord clamp timing; b) attitudes and perceptions of early vs deferred cord clamping; c) cord clamping practice; and d) rationale for cord clamping practice.CONCLUSIONS: Different attitudes and practices were identified between midwifery and medical professionals in relation to cord clamp timing together with health professional knowledge and practice gaps pertaining to optimal cord clamp timing. Contemporary evidence should inform guidelines for clinical practice and be embedded into maternity health professional curricula and professional development programs.PMID:35582849 | DOI:10.1111/birt.12647…
    18 May 2022 12:00 – Lisa Peberdy
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Infants at &lt;29 Weeks of Gestation Born in Canada Between 2009 and 2016

    J Pediatr. 2022 May 11:S0022-3476(22)00408-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.04.048. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in mortality or significant neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in children born at <29 weeks of gestation in association with national quality improvement initiatives.STUDY DESIGN: This longitudinal cohort study included children born at 220/7 to 286/7 weeks of gestation who were admitted to Canadian neonatal intensive care units between 2009 and 2016. The primary outcome was a composite rate of death or significant NDI (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition score <70, severe cerebral palsy, blindness, or deafness requiring amplification) at 18-24 months corrected age. To evaluate temporal changes, outcomes were compared between epoch 1 (2009-2012) and epoch 2 (2013-2016). aORs were calculated for differences between the 2 epochs accounting for differences in patient characteristics.RESULTS: The 4426 children included 1895 (43%) born in epoch 1 and 2531 (57%) born in epoch 2. Compared with epoch 1, in epoch 2 more mothers received magnesium sulfate (56% vs 28%), antibiotics (69% vs 65%), and delayed cord clamping (37% vs 31%) and fewer infants had a Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology, version II >20 (31% vs 35%) and late-onset sepsis (23% vs 27%). Death or significant NDI occurred in 30% of children in epoch 2 versus 32% of children in epoch 1 (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99). In epoch 2, there were reductions in the need for hearing aids or cochlear implants (1.4% vs 2.6%; aOR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.82) and in blindness (0.6% vs.1.4%; aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18-0.80).CONCLUSIONS: Among preterm infants born at <29 weeks of gestation, composite rates of death or significant NDI and rates of visual and hearing impairment were significantly lower in 2013-2016 compared with 2009-2012.PMID:35561804 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.04.048…
    13 May 2022 12:00 – M Florencia Ricci
  • Assessing Implementation of Helping Babies Breathe Program Through Observing Immediate Care of Neonates at Time of Delivery

    Front Pediatr. 2022 Apr 25;10:864431. doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.864431. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Training in neonatal resuscitation has been shown to reduce deaths related to intrapartum asphyxia. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) is a simulation-based program focusing on training healthcare providers (HCPs) in immediate neonatal care including stimulation, initiating bag mask ventilation (BMV) in the absence of breathing by 1 min of life, and delayed (30-60 s after birth) umbilical cord clamping (DCC). Data on implementation of HBB posttraining are limited.OBJECTIVE: To determine time from birth to spontaneous breathing, cord clamping, and initiation of BMV in a setting where the majority of HCPs are HBB trained.METHODS: Two research nurses observed deliveries conducted in two referral hospitals. Timing included the onset of breathing, cord clamping, and initiation of BMV. Deliveries were grouped according to the mode of delivery.RESULTS: In total, 496 neonates were observed; 410 (82.7%) neonates cried or had spontaneous breathing (median time 17 s) soon after birth, 25/86 (29%) of neonates not breathing responded to stimulation, 61 (12.3%) neonates required BMV, and 2 (0.4%) neonates required chest compression and/or adrenalin. Neonates delivered by cesarean section (CS) took longer to initiate first breath than those delivered vaginally (median time 19 vs. 14 s; p = 0.009). Complete data were available in 58/61 (95%) neonates receiving BMV, which was initiated in 54/58 (93%) cases within 60 s of life (the "Golden Minute"). Median time to cord clamping was 74 s, with 414 (83.5%) and 313 (63.0%) having cord clamped at ≥ 30 and ≥ 60 s, respectively. Factors associated with BMV were CS delivery [odds ratio (OR) 29.9; 95% CI 3.37-229], low birth weight (LBW) (birthweight < 2,500 g) (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.93-5.91), and 1 min Apgar score < 7 (OR 149; 95% CI 49.3-5,021). DCC (≥ 60 s) was less likely following CS delivery (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.99) and being LBW (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.24-0.77).CONCLUSION: Approximately 83% of neonates initiated spontaneous breathing soon after birth and 29% of neonates not breathing responded to physical stimulation. BMV was initiated within the Golden Minute in most neonates, but under two-thirds had DCC (≥60 s). HBB implementation followed guidelines, suggesting that knowledge and skills taught from HBB are retained and applied by HCP.PMID:35547538 | PMC:PMC9083269 | DOI:10.3389/fped.2022.864431…
    13 May 2022 12:00 – Martha Mayer
  • Hemodynamic parameters after Delayed Cord Clamping (DCC) in term neonates: a prospective observational study

    BMC Pediatr. 2022 May 6;22(1):256. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03303-4.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is practiced worldwide, as standard care in both term and preterm babies. Our aim was to determine the hemodynamic effects of DCC on transitional circulation.MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital, at Pune, India, from May 2018 to October 2019.Term neonates born during the study period were included. The primary outcome variables of the study were right ventricular output (RVO), left ventricular output (LVO), superior vena cava (SVC) flow (ml/kg/min) and heart rate(HR) at 12 ± 6 and 48 ± 6 h of life measured by point of care functional echocardiography. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability was calculated for these parameters.RESULTS: Out of a total of 2744 deliveries during the study period, 620 babies were included. Mean gestational age of the enrolled babies was 38.96 ± 1.08 weeks and mean birth weight was 2.9 ± 0.39 kg. Mean heart rate of babies recorded at 12 ± 6 h of life was 127 beats per minute (bpm) whereas it was 128 bpm at 48 ± 6 h of life. RVO {mean (SD)} was 209.55(44.89) and 205.85(46.35) ml/kg/min, LVO {mean (SD)} was 133.68(31.15) and 134.78(29.84) ml/kg/min whereas SVC flow {mean (SD)} was 106.85(26.21) and 109.29(25.11) ml/kg/min at 12 ± 6 and 48 ± 6 h of life respectively. There was good intra-observer agreement in all the variables. SGA babies had a significantly higher heart rate at 12 ± 6 h of life as compared to AGA babies, although this difference in heart rate could not be appreciated at 48 ± 6 h of life. However SGA babies had a higher LVO, RVO and SVC flow than AGA babies at both the time points of observation.CONCLUSION: After DCC there is less fluctuation in the hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, cardiac output) at the two time points of observation.. As compared to AGA babies, SGA babies had a significantly higher baseline heart rate, LVO, RVO and SVC flow. LVO of SGA babies after delayed cord clamping is found to be significantly lower than LVO seen in other studies, favoring the cardio-stabilizing effect of DCC.BRIEF RATIONALE: This is the first study with a large sample size evaluating the hemodynamic effects of DCC in term neonates by functional echocardiography. The normative data of heart rate and cardiac output of term, stable babies with small for gestational age(SGA) as a special subgroup undergoing DCC requires further evaluation.PMID:35524194 | PMC:PMC9074198 | DOI:10.1186/s12887-022-03303-4…
    6 May 2022 12:00 – Bhvya Gupta
  • Effect of Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping on Hemodynamic Instability in Preterm Neonates below 35 Weeks

    J Trop Pediatr. 2022 Apr 5;68(3):fmac035. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmac035.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Delaying umbilical cord clamping facilitates postnatal transition in neonates but evidence on its effect in reducing hemodynamic instability in preterm neonates is inconclusive.AIMS: To evaluate delayed cord clamping (DCC) in reducing the incidence of hemodynamic instability in preterm neonates below 35 weeks gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.METHODS: Neonates between 25 weeks and 34 weeks and 6 days gestation were enrolled. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored over 48 h. Hemodynamic instability was defined as persistent tachycardia and/or hypotension necessitating therapy.RESULTS: The DCC cohort included 62 neonates with an equal number in the non-DCC group. The birth weight [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] was 1332.90 ± 390.05 g and the gestational age (mean ± SD) was 31.64 ± 2.52 weeks. Hemodynamic instability was noted in 18/62 (29%) neonates in the DCC cohort and 29/62 (46.7%) in the non-DCC group; relative risk (RR) 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.99] (p = 0.023). The duration of inotrope requirement in the DCC cohort (mean ± SD) was 38.38 ± 16.99 h compared to 49.13 ± 22.90 h in the non-DCC cohort (p = 0.090). Significantly higher systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures were noted from 6 h to 48 h in the DCC cohort (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory distress and FiO2 requirement was also less in the first 24 h. There was no difference in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, late-onset sepsis or mortality.CONCLUSION: Delaying umbilical cord clamping at birth by 60 s resulted in significantly lower hemodynamic instability in the first 48 h and higher blood pressure parameters.PMID:35512365 | DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmac035…
    5 May 2022 12:00 – Vishal Vishnu Tewari
  • Cord clamping beyond 3 minutes: Neonatal short-term outcomes and maternal postpartum hemorrhage

    Birth. 2022 May 2. doi: 10.1111/birt.12645. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delaying cord clamping (CC) for 3-5 minutes reduces iron deficiency and improves neurodevelopment. Data on the effects of CC beyond 3 minutes in relation to short-term neonatal outcomes and maternal risk of postpartum hemorrhage are scarce.METHODS: This was a prospective observational study performed in two delivery departments. Pregnant women with vaginal deliveries were included. Time to CC, estimated postpartum blood loss, and perinatal data were recorded. Spearman's correlation analysis and comparisons between newborns clamped before and after 3 minutes were performed.RESULTS: In total, 904 dyads were included. The mean gestational age ± standard deviation was 40.1 ± 1.2 weeks. CC was performed at a median time of 6 minutes (range 0-23.5). Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes were positively correlated with time to CC (correlation coefficient .140, P < .001 and .161, < .001). There was no correlation between CC time and bilirubin level (correlation coefficient .021, P = .54). The median postpartum blood loss was 300 mL (70-2550 mL), with a negative correlation between CC time and postpartum blood loss (-0.115, P = .001). The postpartum blood loss was larger in the group clamped at ≤3 minutes (median [interquartile range] 400 mL [300-600] vs 300 mL [250-450], [P = .003]].CONCLUSIONS: Umbilical CC times beyond 3 minutes in vaginal deliveries were not associated with negative short-term outcomes in newborns and were associated with a smaller maternal postpartum blood loss. Although CC time as long as 6 minutes could be considered as safe, further research is needed to decide the optimal timing.PMID:35502141 | DOI:10.1111/birt.12645…
    3 May 2022 12:00 – Andreas Winkler
  • Hemodynamic Quality Improvement Bundle to Reduce the Use of Inotropes in Extreme Preterm Neonates

    Paediatr Drugs. 2022 May;24(3):259-267. doi: 10.1007/s40272-022-00502-5. Epub 2022 Apr 26.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of the quality improvement (QI) bundle on the rate of inotrope use and associated morbidities.METHODS: We included inborn preterm neonates born at < 29 weeks admitted to level III NICU. We implemented a QI bundle focusing on the first 72 h from birth which included delayed cord clamping, avoidance of routine echocardiography, the addition of clinical criteria to the definition of hypotension, factoring iatrogenic causes of hypotension, and standardization of respiratory management. The rate of inotropes use was compared before and after implementing the care bundle. Incidence of cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) was used as a balancing measure.RESULTS: QI bundle implementation was associated with significant reduction in overall use of inotropes (24 vs 7%, p < 0.001), dopamine (18 vs 5%, p < 0.001), and dobutamine (17 vs 4%, p < 0.001). Rate of acute brain injury decreased significantly: acute brain injury of any grade (34 vs 20%, p < 0.001) and severe brain injury (15 vs 6%, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of cPVL (0.8 vs 1.4%, p = 0.66). Associations remained significant after adjusting for confounding factors.CONCLUSIONS: A quality improvement bundled approach resulted in a reduction in inotropes use and associated brain morbidities in premature babies.PMID:35469390 | DOI:10.1007/s40272-022-00502-5…
    26 April 2022 12:00 – Sujith Kumar Reddy Gurram Venkata
  • Making the Argument for Intact Cord Resuscitation: A Case Report and Discussion

    Children (Basel). 2022 Apr 6;9(4):517. doi: 10.3390/children9040517.ABSTRACTWe use a case of intact cord resuscitation to argue for the beneficial effects of an enhanced blood volume from placental transfusion for newborns needing resuscitation. We propose that intact cord resuscitation supports the process of physiologic neonatal transition, especially for many of those newborns appearing moribund. Transfer of the residual blood in the placenta provides the neonate with valuable access to otherwise lost blood volume while changing from placental respiration to breathing air. Our hypothesis is that the enhanced blood flow from placental transfusion initiates mechanical and chemical forces that directly, and indirectly through the vagus nerve, cause vasodilatation in the lung. Pulmonary vascular resistance is thereby reduced and facilitates the important increased entry of blood into the alveolar capillaries before breathing commences. In the presented case, enhanced perfusion to the brain by way of an intact cord likely led to regained consciousness, initiation of breathing, and return of tone and reflexes minutes after birth. Paramount to our hypothesis is the importance of keeping the umbilical cord circulation intact during the first several minutes of life to accommodate physiologic neonatal transition for all newborns and especially for those most compromised infants.PMID:35455560 | PMC:PMC9031173 | DOI:10.3390/children9040517…
    23 April 2022 12:00 – Judith Mercer
  • Factors associated with umbilical cord clamping in term newborns

    Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2022 Mar 28;56:e20210423. doi: 10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2021-0423. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with umbilical cord clamping in term newborns and to compare the recording of clamping time in the medical record with what was observed.METHOD: Cross-sectional study, with 300 mothers-infants, in a university hospital. Clamping time and medical records were observed, and a structured questionnaire was applied to postpartum women for sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analysis, multivariate Poisson Regression model, and Kappa concordance test were performed.RESULTS: The percentage of late/optimal clamping observed was 53.7%. The associated factors were skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room (PR = 0.76; 0.61-0.95; p = 0.014), position of the newborn below the vaginal canal (PR = 2.6; CI95%: 1.66-4.07; p < 0.001), position of the newborn at the vaginal level (PR = 2.03; CI95%: 1.5-2.75; p < 0.001), and need for newborn resuscitation in the delivery room (PR = 1.42; CI95%; 1.16-1.73; p = 0.001). Kappa concordance level of the professionals, records compared to the observation was: nurse 0.47, obstetrician 0.59, and pediatrician 0.86.CONCLUSION: the identification of associated factors and the comparison between recording and observing the clamping time can help in the planning and implementation of improvements for adherence to good practices at birth.PMID:35348571 | DOI:10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2021-0423…
    29 March 2022 12:00 – Juliana Karine Rodrigues Strada
  • Guideline No. 424: Umbilical Cord Management in Preterm and Term Infants

    J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2022 Mar;44(3):313-322.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2022.01.007.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of deferred (delayed) cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking in singleton and twin gestations on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity.TARGET POPULATION: People who are pregnant with preterm or term singletons or twins.BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: In preterm singletons, DCC for (ideally) 60 to 120 seconds, but at least for 30 seconds, reduces infant risk of mortality and morbidity. DCC in preterm twins is associated with some benefits. In term singletons, DCC for 60 seconds improves hematological parameters. In very preterm infants, umbilical cord milking increases risk for intraventricular hemorrhage.EVIDENCE: Searches of Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2020 were undertaken using Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and key words related to deferred cord clamping and umbilical cord milking. This document represents an abstraction of the evidence rather than a methodological review.VALIDATION METHODS: The authors rated the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. See online Appendix A (Tables A1 for definitions and A2 for interpretations of strong and conditional [weak] recommendations).INTENDED USERS: Maternity and newborn care providers.PMID:35300830 | DOI:10.1016/j.jogc.2022.01.007…
    18 March 2022 11:00 – Sarah D McDonald
  • Practices and attitudes about delayed umbilical cord clamping for term infants: a descriptive survey among midwives

    J Obstet Gynaecol. 2022 Mar 7:1-8. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2022.2036964. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to assess variations in midwives' practices of cord clamping (early versus delayed) and to identify factors potentially associated with delayed clamping. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey by self-administered online questionnaire among French midwives working in delivery rooms from March to July 2018. We obtained complete responses from 350 midwives. Only 120 (34.3%) reported always or sometimes performing delayed cord clamping at one minute or more after birth. Delayed cord clamping was significantly associated with midwives' experience (adjusted OR 3.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10, 7.83 for experience >10 years), maternity unit written protocol (adjusted OR (aOR) 5.17; 95% CI 1.88, 16.00), knowledge of guidelines (aOR 3.33; 95% CI 1.98, 5.71) and neonatal care level 1 (aOR 2.95; 95% CI 1.53, 5.78).Impact StatementWhat is already know on this subject? Despite benefits and the safety of delayed cord clamping, many newborns likely had their umbilical cords clamped immediately after delivery as part of routine care or because providers were not convinced of the benefits of delayed clamping.What do the results of this study add? Most of the midwives surveyed did not systematically delay cord clamping. Individual and organisational factors were associated with adherence to guidelines regarding delayed cord clamping.What are the implications of these findings for clinical and/or further research? A protocol should be implemented in every maternity unit with information about the benefits and risks of delayed cord clamping to reduce variations in practice and improve the safety of care.PMID:35253590 | DOI:10.1080/01443615.2022.2036964…
    7 March 2022 12:00 – Anne Rousseau
  • Effect of later cord clamping on umbilical cord blood gas in term neonates of diabetic mothers: a randomized clinical trial

    BMC Pediatr. 2022 Mar 1;22(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03170-z.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of later cord clamping (LCC) on umbilical arterial blood gas in neonates of diabetic mothers.METHODS: This prospective study included a group of 160 diabetic mothers (DM) whose neonates were randomized to immediate cord clamping (ICC) (≤ 15 s after birth) or LCC (≥ 30 s after birth), and a group of 208 non-diabetic mothers (NDM) whose neonates were randomized to ICC or LCC as a reference. Cord arterial pH, base excess (BE), bicarbonate (HCO3-), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), lactate, hemoglobin, hematocrit and glucose were compared among groups.RESULTS: In neonates of DM, there was no significant difference in cord arterial pH between the ICC and LCC group. LCC of ≥ 30 s decreased umbilical arterial HCO3- and BE and increased lactate (ICC versus LCC, HCO3-: 24.3 (22.7, 25.8) versus 23.7 (22.3, 24.7) mmol/L, P = 0.01; BE: -2.70 (-4.80, -1.50) versus - 3.72 (-5.66, -2.36) mmol/L, P = 0.006; lactate: 2.1 (1.6, 3.7) versus 2.7 (2.1, 4.3) mmol/L, P = 0.005), without the alterations of pCO2, pO2, hemoglobin, hematocrit and glucose. Similar results were found in neonates of NDM (ICC versus LCC, HCO3-: 24.3 (23.1, 25.7) versus 23.5 (22.3, 24.8) mmol/L, P = 0.01; BE: -2.39 (-3.73, -1.51) versus - 3.40 (-4.73, -1.91) mmol/L, P = 0.001; lactate: 2.2 (1.9, 3.3) versus 2.5 (2.0, 4.3) mmol/L, P = 0.01), except for the higher level of hemoglobin in the LCC group. The majority of diabetic mothers (ICC: 92.0%; LCC: 91.8%) had good blood glucose control. No differences were observed in acid-base status and glucose between neonates of DM and neonates of NDM in both ICC and LCC, but hemoglobin and hematocrit were elevated after ICC in neonates of DM compared to neonates of NDM.CONCLUSIONS: Later cord clamping of ≥ 30 s resulted in a tendency towards metabolic acidosis of umbilical arterial blood in neonates of DM and NDM. Umbilical arterial blood gas parameters at birth were similar in neonates of DM and NDM.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04369313 ; date of registration: 30/04/2020 (retrospectively registered).PMID:35232426 | PMC:PMC8886805 | DOI:10.1186/s12887-022-03170-z…
    2 March 2022 12:00 – Hailing Shao
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 30- versus a 120-Second Delay in Cord Clamping after Term Birth

    Am J Perinatol. 2022 Feb 15. doi: 10.1055/a-1772-4543. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been recently adopted in neonatal resuscitation. The immediate cardiac hemodynamic effects related to DCC more than 30 seconds was not studied. We aimed to study the effect of DCC at 120 seconds compared with 30 seconds on multiple hemodynamic variables in full-term infants using an electrical cardiometry (EC) device.STUDY DESIGN: Present study is a randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted with full-term infants who were delivered at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in Cairo University Hospital. Sixty-eight full term infants were successfully enrolled in this trial. Cardiac output (CO) and other hemodynamic parameters were evaluated in this study by EC device. Hemoglobin, glucose, and bilirubin concentrations were measured at 24 hours. Newborn infants were assigned randomly into group 1: DCC at 30 seconds, and group 2: DCC at 120 seconds, based on the time of cord clamping.RESULTS: Stroke volume (SV) (mL) and CO (L/min) were significantly higher in group 2 compared with group 1 at 5 minutes (6.71 vs. 5.35 and 1.09 vs. 0.75), 10 minutes (6.43 vs. 5.59 and 0.88 vs. 0.77), 15 minutes (6.45 vs. 5.60 and 0.89 vs. 0.76), and 24 hours (6.67 vs. 5.75 and 0.91vs. 0.81), respectively. Index of contractility (ICON; units) was significantly increased in group 2 at 5 minutes compared with group1 (114.2 vs. 83.8). Hematocrit (%) and total bilirubin concentrations (mg/dL) at 24 hours were significantly increased in group 2 compared with group 1 (51.5 vs. 40.5 and 3.8 vs. 2.9, respectively).CONCLUSION: Stroke volume and cardiac output are significantly higher in neonates with DCC at 120 seconds compared with 30 seconds that continues for the first 24 hours.KEY POINTS: · CO is significantly increased with DCC at 120 seconds.. · SV is significantly increased with DCC at 120 seconds.. · Such effects continued during the entire 24 hours of life in full-term infants..PMID:35170013 | DOI:10.1055/a-1772-4543…
    16 February 2022 12:00 – Reem M Soliman
  • Current Resources for Evidence-Based Practice, March 2022

    J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2022 Mar;51(2):225-237. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2022.01.005. Epub 2022 Feb 10.ABSTRACTAn extensive review of new resources to support the provision of evidence-based care for women and infants. The current column includes a discussion of systemic racism and its effect on maternal health in the United States and commentaries on reviews focused on barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination and delayed cord clamping in preterm infants.PMID:35150643 | DOI:10.1016/j.jogn.2022.01.005…
    12 February 2022 12:00 – Marit L Bovbjerg
  • Delayed cord clamping: Impact on fetal cord blood gas analysis

    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2022 Apr;62(2):328-331. doi: 10.1111/ajo.13488. Epub 2022 Feb 7.ABSTRACTBoth delayed cord clamping (DCC) and cord blood gas (CBG) analysis are recommended practices for preterm births. However, the compliance rates remain lower than expected, with a DCC rate of only 48.9% and CBG sampling of 66.6% in the preterm cohort. DCC was associated with a significant reduction in success rate of paired CBG analysis in both the term and preterm cohort of 8.3% and 7.7% respectively. Our study highlights the difficulty in achieving both recommendations.PMID:35129206 | PMC:PMC9304228 | DOI:10.1111/ajo.13488…
    7 February 2022 12:00 – Cynthia Wong
  • Toward greater nuance in delayed cord clamping

    Curr Opin Pediatr. 2022 Apr 1;34(2):170-177. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001117.ABSTRACTPURPOSE OF REVIEW: For over a decade, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has recommended delayed cord clamping (DCC), but implementation has been variable due to lack of consensus on details of technique and concerns for risks in certain patient populations. This review summarizes recent literature on the benefits and risks of DCC in term and preterm infants and examines alternative approaches such as physiologic-based cord clamping or intact cord resuscitation (ICR) and umbilical cord milking (UCM).RECENT FINDINGS: DCC improves hemoglobin/hematocrit among term infants and may promote improved neurodevelopment. In preterms, DCC improves survival compared to early cord clamping; however, UCM has been associated with severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely preterm infants. Infants of COVID-19 positive mothers, growth-restricted babies, multiples, and some infants with cardiopulmonary anomalies can also benefit from DCC. Large randomized trials of ICR will clarify safety and benefits in nonvigorous neonates. These have the potential to dramatically change the sequence of events during neonatal resuscitation.SUMMARY: Umbilical cord management has moved beyond simple time-based comparisons to nuances of technique and application in vulnerable sub-populations. Ongoing research highlights the importance of an individualized approach that recognizes the physiologic equilibrium when ventilation is established before cord clamping.PMID:35125380 | PMC:PMC8893040 | DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000001117…
    7 February 2022 12:00 – Laura Marrs
  • What does the evidence tell us? Revisiting optimal cord management at the time of birth

    Eur J Pediatr. 2022 May;181(5):1797-1807. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04395-x. Epub 2022 Feb 2.ABSTRACTA newborn who receives a placental transfusion at birth from delayed cord clamping (DCC) obtains about 30% more blood volume than those with immediate cord clamping (ICC). Benefits for term neonates include higher hemoglobin levels, less iron deficiency in infancy, improved myelination out to 12 months, and better motor and social development at 4 years of age especially in boys. For preterm infants, benefits include less intraventricular hemorrhage, fewer gastrointestinal issues, lower transfusion requirements, and less mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit by 30%. Ventilation before clamping the umbilical cord can reduce large swings in cardiovascular function and help to stabilize the neonate. Hypovolemia, often associated with nuchal cord or shoulder dystocia, may lead to an inflammatory cascade and subsequent ischemic injury. A sudden unexpected neonatal asystole at birth may occur from severe hypovolemia. The restoration of blood volume is an important action to protect the hearts and brains of neonates. Currently, protocols for resuscitation call for ICC. However, receiving an adequate blood volume via placental transfusion may be protective for distressed neonates as it prevents hypovolemia and supports optimal perfusion to all organs. Bringing the resuscitation to the mother's bedside is a novel concept and supports an intact umbilical cord. When one cannot wait, cord milking several times can be done quickly within the resuscitation guidelines. Cord blood gases can be collected with optimal cord management. Conclusion: Adopting a policy for resuscitation with an intact cord in a hospital setting takes a coordinated effort and requires teamwork by obstetrics, pediatrics, midwifery, and nursing.PMID:35112135 | PMC:PMC9056455 | DOI:10.1007/s00431-022-04395-x…
    3 February 2022 12:00 – Heike Rabe
  • A Quality Improvement Bundle to Improve Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants in the First Week

    Pediatrics. 2022 Feb 1;149(2):e2020037341. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-037341.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: Our objective with this quality improvement initiative was to reduce rates of severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or death in the first week after birth among extremely preterm infants.METHODS: The quality improvement initiative was conducted from April 2014 to September 2020 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham's NICU. All actively treated inborn extremely preterm infants without congenital anomalies from 22 + 0/7 to 27 + 6/7 weeks' gestation with a birth weight ≥400 g were included. The primary outcome was severe ICH or death in the first 7 days after birth. Balancing measures included rates of acute kidney injury and spontaneous intestinal perforation. Outcome and process measure data were analyzed by using p-charts.RESULTS: We studied 820 infants with a mean gestational age of 25 + 3/7 weeks and median birth weight of 744 g. The rate of severe ICH or death in the first week after birth decreased from the baseline rate of 27.4% to 15.0%. The rate of severe ICH decreased from a baseline rate of 16.4% to 10.0%. Special cause variation in the rate of severe ICH or death in the first week after birth was observed corresponding with improvement in carbon dioxide and pH targeting, compliance with delayed cord clamping, and expanded use of indomethacin prophylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a bundle of evidence-based potentially better practices by using specific electronic order sets was associated with a lower rate of severe ICH or death in the first week among extremely preterm infants.PMID:35088085 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-037341…
    28 January 2022 12:00 – Colm P Travers
  • Not Everything Is Cordless Today-Case Report of Acute Intestinal Obstruction in a Neonate Due to Cord Clamping

    Front Pediatr. 2022 Jan 7;9:810570. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.810570. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTWe report a case of a 2-day-old neonate with bilious vomiting and abdominal distension. A small bowel obstruction with ileal perforation due to a misplaced clamping of the umbilical cord was apparent before laparotomy. This complication was a sequala after clamping the cord too close to the abdominal wall in a case where there was a hernia into the cord with intestinal content. A herniation of abdominal contents due to an omphalocele minor or a hernia must be taken into consideration during the inspection of the umbilical cord before clamping.PMID:35071143 | PMC:PMC8779468 | DOI:10.3389/fped.2021.810570…
    24 January 2022 12:00 – Daniel Keese
  • Comparison of Three Different Cord Clamping Techniques Regarding Oxidative-Antioxidative Capacity in Term Newborns

    Am J Perinatol. 2022 Jan 13. doi: 10.1055/a-1739-3529. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: As newborns are exposed to oxidative stress during delivery, cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status. In this study, we aimed to show the relationship between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC), and cut-umbilical cord milking (C-UCM) techniques with total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and peroxynitrite levels.STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-nine term infants were selected with Apgar's score of 7 and above in the 1 minute and 5 minutes. The mothers of all infants had uncomplicated pregnancy, had no congenital anomaly, and delivered by cesarean section. Newborns were randomized to one of three groups: ECC (n: 23), DCC (n: 23), or C-UCM (n: 23). After all newborn babies were taken under radiant heater, blood samples were collected from the UC. The plasma samples were then frozen and stored at -80°C until analysis and TOC, TAC, and peroxynitrite levels were studied.RESULTS: The ages of the mothers participating in the study were between 17 and 42 years, with an average of 29.14 ± 6.28. Thirty (43.5%) of the babies were girls and 39 (56.5%) were boys. The 5-minute Apgar's score of the babies in ECC group was significantly lower than the babies in DCC and cut cord milking group (p = 0.034; p = 0.034; p < 0.05). The TOC, oxidative stress index (OSI), and peroxynitrite measurements of three groups did not differ statistically. The TAC value of the C-UCM group was significantly higher than the patients with the ECC and DCC groups (p = 0.002; p = 0.019; p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: C-UCM and DCC would be feasible methods by increasing antioxidant status and providing protective effect on the future health of the term newborns.KEY POINT: · Cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status of the newborn babies.. · C-UCM and DCC are feasible methods for term newborns.. · Cord clamping methods may play a protective effect on the future health of term newborns..PMID:35026851 | DOI:10.1055/a-1739-3529…
    13 January 2022 12:00 – İshak Kartal
  • Oxygen saturation and heart rate in healthy term and late preterm infants with delayed cord clamping

    Pediatr Res. 2022 Jan 7. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01805-y. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBlood oxygen in the fetus is substantially lower than in the newborn infant. In the minutes after birth, arterial oxygen saturation rises from around 50-60% to 90-95%. Initial respiratory efforts generate negative trans-thoracic pressures that drive liquid from the airways into the lung interstitium facilitating lung aeration, blood oxygenation, and pulmonary artery vasodilatation. Consequently, intra- (foramen ovale) and extra-cardiac (ductus arteriosus) shunting changes and the sequential circulation switches to a parallel pulmonary and systemic circulation. Delaying cord clamping preserves blood flow through the ascending vena cava, thus increasing right and left ventricular preload. Recently published reference ranges have suggested that delayed cord clamping positively influenced the fetal-to-neonatal transition. Oxygen saturation in babies with delayed cord clamping plateaus significantly earlier to values of 85-90% than in babies with immediate cord clamping. Delayed cord clamping may also contribute to fewer episodes of brady-or-tachycardia in the first minutes after birth, but data from randomized trials are awaited. IMPACT: Delaying cord clamping during fetal to neonatal transition contributes to a significantly earlier plateauing of oxygen saturation and fewer episodes of brady-and/or-tachycardia in the first minutes after birth. We provide updated information regarding the changes in SpO2 and HR during postnatal adaptation of term and late preterm infants receiving delayed compared with immediate cord clamping. Nomograms in newborn infants with delayed cord clamping will provide valuable reference ranges to establish target SpO2 and HR in the first minutes after birth.PMID:34997223 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01805-y…
    8 January 2022 12:00 – Inmaculada Lara-Cantón
  • Physiology, Neonatal

    2022 Apr 28. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–.ABSTRACTThe neonatal period is the period of the most dramatic physiologic changes that occur during human life. While the respiratory and cardiovascular systems change immediately at birth, other organ systems evolve slowly with time until the transition from intrauterine to adult physiology is complete. The transitional period of the newborn is a critical time for humans to adapt to life outside the womb. There are distinct physiologic changes during this period, especially regarding the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The loss of the low-pressure placenta and its ability to facilitate gas exchange, circulation, and waste management for the fetus creates a need for physiologic adaptation.Premature birth can significantly thwart these physiologic changes from occurring as they should. The endocrine system, specifically the release of cortisol via the hypothalamus, is responsible for lung maturation of the fetus and the neonate. There is a “cortisol surge” that begins with cortisol levels of 5 to 10 mcg/ml at 30 weeks gestational age, 20 mcg/ml at 36 weeks, 46 mcg/ml at 40 weeks, and 200mcg/ml during labor. Cortisol is responsible for lung maturation, thyroid hormone secretion, hepatic gluconeogenesis, catecholamine secretion, and the production of digestive enzymes. Mature thyroid function appears to help prepare the neonatal cardiovascular system and aid in the regulation of temperature. Following clamping of the umbilical cord and the first breath of life, arterial oxygen tension increases, and pulmonary vascular resistance decreases, facilitating gas exchange in the lungs. Subsequent pulmonary blood flow will cause an increase in left atrial pressure and a reduction in right atrial pressure. Changes in the PO2, PCO2, and pH are contributing factors to these physiologic changes in the newborn. Lung surfactant plays a critical role in these changes allowing the lungs to mature upon delivery. Remnants of fetal circulation (ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale, ductus venosus) will also gradually recede during this neonatal period, defined as up to 44 weeks postconceptual age.PMID:30969662 | Bookshelf:NBK539840…
    1 January 2022 12:00 – Tara M. Doherty
  • The Use of a Disposable Umbilical Clamp to Secure an Umbilical Venous Catheter in Neonatal Emergencies-An Experimental Feasibility Study

    Children (Basel). 2021 Nov 26;8(12):1093. doi: 10.3390/children8121093.ABSTRACTRecent guidelines recommend the umbilical venous catheter (UVC) as the optimal vascular access method during neonatal resuscitation. In emergencies the UVC securement may be challenging and time-consuming. This experimental study was designed to test the feasibility of new concepts for the UVC securement. Umbilical cord remnants were catheterized with peripheral catheters and secured with disposable umbilical clamps. Three different securement techniques were investigated. Secure 1: the disposable umbilical clamp was closed at the level of the inserted catheter. Secure 2: the clamp was closed at the junction of the catheter and plastic wings. Secure 3: the setting of Secure 2 was combined with an umbilical tape. The main outcomes were the feasibility of fluid administration and the maximum force to release the securement. This study shows that inserting peripheral catheters into the umbilical vein and securing them with disposable umbilical clamps is feasible. Rates of lumen obstruction and the effectiveness of the securement were superior with Secure 2 and 3 compared to Secure 1. This new approach may be a rewarding option for umbilical venous catheterization and securement particularly in low-resource settings and for staff with limited experience in neonatal emergencies. However, although promising, these results need to be confirmed in clinical trials before being introduced into clinical practice.PMID:34943289 | PMC:PMC8699894 | DOI:10.3390/children8121093…
    24 December 2021 12:00 – Bernhard Schwaberger
  • Evaluating the implementation of helping babies survive program to improve newborn care conditiona

    J Educ Health Promot. 2021 Oct 29;10:373. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_53_21. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The main reason of newborn mortalities in low- and middle-income countries is due to the lack of skilled caregivers in providing essential care for babies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of helping babies survive (HBS) program to improve newborn care condition in Isfahan, Iran.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the labor and midwifery wards of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan. Convenience sampling method was used for all healthy newborns who weighed >1500 g. First, the samples were selected for the control group. Then, the Helping Babies Breathe and Essential Care for Every Baby training courses were held over for ward nurses and midwives. Then, the samples of the intervention group were selected. The research tools consisted of demographic characteristic questionnaire, caregiver performance evaluation checklist, and breastfeeding registration checklist. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis.RESULTS: A total of 130 newborns were divided into control (n = 65) and intervention groups (n = 65). The average time of umbilical cord clamping increased from 13.85 to 61.48 s, and the average duration of skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby increased from 11.75 to 60.47 min. The mean of early initiation of breastfeeding improved during the 1st h and the 1st day of the birth. The rate of neonatal hypothermia in the intervention group decreased sharply.CONCLUSION: The implementation of the HBS program can positively impact newborn care condition.PMID:34912909 | PMC:PMC8641757 | DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_53_21…
    16 December 2021 12:00 – Atefeh Jourabian
  • Effects of delayed versus immediate umbilical cord clamping in reducing death or major disability at 2 years corrected age among very preterm infants (APTS): a multicentre, randomised clinical trial

    Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2022 Mar;6(3):150-157. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00373-4. Epub 2021 Dec 8.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Very preterm infants are at increased risk of adverse outcomes in early childhood. We assessed whether delayed clamping of the umbilical cord reduces mortality or major disability at 2 years in the APTS Childhood Follow Up Study.METHODS: In this long-term follow-up analysis of the multicentre, randomised APTS trial in 25 centres in seven countries, infants (<30 weeks gestation) were randomly assigned before birth (1:1) to have clinicians aim to delay clamping for 60 s or more or clamp within 10 s of birth, both without cord milking. The primary outcome was death or major disability (cerebral palsy, severe visual loss, deafness requiring a hearing aid or cochlear implants, major language or speech problems, or cognitive delay) at 2 years corrected age, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000633088).FINDINGS: Between Oct 21, 2009, and Jan 6, 2017, consent was obtained for follow-up for 1531 infants, of whom 767 were randomly assigned to delayed clamping and 764 to immediate clamping. 384 (25%) of 1531 infants were multiple births, 862 (56%) infants were male, and 505 (33%) were born before 27 weeks gestation. 564 (74%) of 767 infants assigned to delayed clamping and 726 (96%) of 764 infants assigned to immediate clamping received treatment that fully adhered to the protocol. Death or major disability was determined in 1419 (93%) infants and occurred in 204 (29%) of 709 infants who were assigned to delayed clamping versus 240 (34%) of 710 assigned to immediate clamping, (relative risk [RR]) 0·83, 95% CI 0·72-0·95; p=0·010). 60 (8%) of 725 infants in the delayed clamping group and 81 (11%) of 720 infants in the immediate clamping group died by 2 years of age (RR 0·70, 95% CI 0·52-0·95); among those who survived, major disability at 2 years occurred in 23% (144/627) versus 26% (159/603) of infants, respectively (RR 0·88, 0·74-1·04).INTERPRETATION: Clamping the umbilical cord at least 60 s after birth reduced the risk of death or major disability at 2 years by 17%, reflecting a 30% reduction in relative mortality with no difference in major disability.FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.PMID:34895510 | DOI:10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00373-4…
    13 December 2021 12:00 – Kristy P Robledo
  • Large Hemoglobin Differences at Birth in Monochorionic Twins with a Placental Chorangioma and Delayed Cord Clamping

    Twin Res Hum Genet. 2021 Oct;24(5):281-284. doi: 10.1017/thg.2021.46. Epub 2021 Dec 9.ABSTRACTWe report a case of a monochorionic diamniotic twin with an uncomplicated pregnancy, but with an unexpected large intertwin hemoglobin (Hb) difference at birth. Twin 1 was delivered vaginally and had an uneventful neonatal course. The umbilical cord of Twin 1 was clamped approximately 5 min after birth. After the birth of Twin 1, Twin 2 developed severe bradycardia and showed limited cardiac output on ultrasound, for which an emergency cesarean section was performed. A full blood count revealed an Hb of 20.1 g/dL for Twin 1 and 10.2 g/dL for Twin 2 (intertwin difference 9.9 g/dL). Reticulocyte counts were similar, 40‰ and 38‰, respectively. Placental examination revealed 10 vascular anastomoses, including one arterio-arterial anastomosis with a diameter of 1.4 mm. Additionally, a large chorangioma was present on the placental surface of Twin 2. There was no color difference on the maternal side of the placenta. Based on the reticulocyte count ratio and the placental characteristics, twin anemia polycythemia sequence was ruled out as the cause of the large intertwin Hb difference. In this report, we discuss the various potential causes that could explain the large intertwin Hb difference including the role of delayed cord clamping in Twin 1, and the role of a large chorangioma, which may have attracted blood from the fetal circulation of Twin 2.PMID:34879894 | DOI:10.1017/thg.2021.46…
    9 December 2021 12:00 – Sophie G Groene
  • Management of Placental Transfusion to Neonates After Delivery

    Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Jan 1;139(1):121-137. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004625.ABSTRACTThis review summarizes high-quality evidence supporting delayed umbilical cord clamping to promote placental transfusion to preterm and term neonates. In preterm neonates, delayed cord clamping may decrease mortality and the need for blood transfusions. Although robust data are lacking to guide cord management strategies in many clinical scenarios, emerging literature is reviewed on numerous topics including delivery mode, twin gestations, maternal comorbidities (eg, gestational diabetes, red blood cell alloimmunization, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection) and neonatal complications (eg, fetal growth restriction, congenital heart disease, and the depressed neonate). Umbilical cord milking is an alternate method of rapid placental transfusion, but has been associated with severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely preterm neonates. Data on long-term outcomes are discussed, as well as potential contraindications to delayed cord clamping. Overall, delayed cord clamping offers potential benefits to the estimated 140 million neonates born globally every year, emphasizing the importance of this simple and no-cost strategy.PMID:34856560 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004625…
    2 December 2021 12:00 – Ryan M McAdams

ALtimetric score

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2017 on anemia is spread by media

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2015 on neurodevelopment is spread by media