Latest research on cord clamping

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We will continously blog on our own and others results on cord clamping, as well as other news related to the subject, such as umbilical cord milking and resuscitation.

Latest posts from the blog

11 February 2017
In memory of Hans Rosling:

Curiosity. Commitment. Factfullness.
On three occasions, Hans tweeted about our research. Obviously, I was both surprised and proud that this occupied and certainly hard courted person had time to follow what we've done. Now he is deceased, lost to all of us, but especially of course for his family, friends and loved ones.
There are many who have shared their memory of Hans Rosling during the recent days, yet I cannot help but share my thoughts with you.
We are many who admire Hans and what he accomplished, from his many years of work as a doctor in Africa, his research and start-up of programs in global health and his work with Gapminder. His humanism. In all I think three words shines brightly:
Curiosity. Commitment. Factfullness.
Hans always seemed to be curious, to phenomena in the world around us, curious on people, to figure out how the earth can be better place to live. The altruistic commitment he radiated, the commitment to spread knowledge, to help people, the passion to reach out, not to gain personal benefit, but for everyone's best. And then the word that Hans is said to have coined, and he was writing a book about: factfulness. To see past our own beliefs and prejudices. The ability to see the reality that is in front of us and to base our arguments on facts and not something else.
This last has never been so important as today, when many of us so easily begin to listen to the populists and the prophets of doom, the Trumps and right extremes.
Others have written that Hans Rosling's voice was more important now than ever before. I guess what we really should say is that everyone's vote is more important than in a long time.
When similar winds as from before World War II blows cold all around us, then it is time to join Hans Rosling disciples to become apostles: Start with a good dose of humanism and add thereto Curiosity. Commitment. And perhaps above all Factfulness.
Thanks for all Hans. I will try my best to honor your memory.

Memorial fund in honor of Hans Rosling

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22 January 2017
3 reasons for clamping the umbilical cord after 3 minutes
14 January 2017
30 seconds might be enough when delaying cord clamping at cesarean sections


Latest posts on NEW research

Two of the persons involved in the development of Lifestart trolley ( has published a review in Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology.
"Abstract: The rationale for keeping the mother and her newborn together even when neonatal resuscitation is required is presented. The development of a customised mobile resuscitation trolley is detailed explaining how the resuscitation team can be provided with all the facilities of a standard resuscitation trolley to resuscitate the neonate at the mother’s side with an intact cord. Alternative low tech solutions which may be appropriate in low resource setting and with a low risk population are also described."

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9 July 2015
Delayed clamping vs. milking in preterm infants
12 June 2015
Review on delivery room management of newly born infants
23 May 2015
Cardiac changes during delayed cord clamping
3 May 2015
Delayed cord clamping with and without cord stripping: a prospective randomized trial of preterm neo
12 April 2015
Delayed cord clamping in South African neonates with expected low birthweight


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  • Umbilical Cord Management at Term and Late Preterm Birth: A Meta-analysis

    Pediatrics. 2021 Mar;147(3):e2020015404. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-015404.ABSTRACTCONTEXT: The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation prioritized scientific review of umbilical cord management at term and late preterm birth.OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of umbilical cord management strategies (clamping timing and cord milking) in infants ≥34 weeks' gestational age.DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and trial registries searched July 2019.STUDY SELECTION: Two authors independently assessed eligibility of randomized controlled trials.DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed evidence certainty (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations).RESULTS: We identified 46 studies (9159 women and their infants) investigating 7 comparisons. Compared with early cord clamping (ECC) <30 seconds, delayed cord clamping (DCC) ≥30 seconds (33 studies), intact-cord milking (1 study), and cut-cord milking (2 studies) probably improve hematologic measures but may not affect survival without neurodisability, anemia in early infancy, or maternal postpartum hemorrhage. No differences in major neonatal morbidities are seen in studies comparing methods of optimizing placental transfusion (DCC versus cut-cord milking [3 studies], longer delays in clamping [7 studies], or physiologic parameters [3 studies]). Strategies that promote increased placental transfusion may be associated with greater phototherapy use. Evidence for all outcomes was low or very low certainty.LIMITATIONS: Incompleteness and low certainty of findings limit applicability.CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ECC, DCC or cord milking increases hemoglobin and hematocrit immediately after birth in infants ≥34 weeks' gestational age. The uncertain effects of DCC and cord milking compared with ECC on major morbidities limit usefulness of available evidence for policy and practice.PMID:33632933 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-015404…
    26 February 2021 12:00 – Judith Gomersall
  • Umbilical Cord Management for Newborns &lt;34 Weeks' Gestation: A Meta-analysis

    Pediatrics. 2021 Mar;147(3):e20200576. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-0576.ABSTRACTCONTEXT: The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation prioritized scientific review of umbilical cord management strategies at preterm birth.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of umbilical cord management strategies (including timing of cord clamping and cord milking) in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestation.DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and trial registries were searched through July 2019 for randomized controlled trials assessing timing of cord clamping and/or cord milking.STUDY SELECTION: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, appraised risk of bias, and assessed evidence certainty (GRADE).DATA EXTRACTION: We identified 42 randomized controlled trials (including 5772 infants) investigating 4 different comparisons of cord management interventions.RESULTS: Compared to early cord clamping, delayed cord clamping (DCC) and intact-cord milking (ICM) may slightly improve survival; however, both are compatible with no effect (DCC: risk ratio: 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.04, n = 2988 infants, moderate certainty evidence; ICM: risk ratio: 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.98 to 1.06, n = 945 infants, moderate certainty evidence). DCC and ICM both probably improve hematologic measures but may not affect major neonatal morbidities.LIMITATIONS: For many of the included comparisons and outcomes, certainty of evidence was low. Our subgroup analyses were limited by few researchers reporting subgroup data.CONCLUSIONS: DCC appears to be associated with some benefit for infants born <34 weeks. Cord milking needs further evidence to determine potential benefits or harms. The ideal cord management strategy for preterm infants is still unknown, but early clamping may be harmful.PMID:33632931 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-0576…
    26 February 2021 12:00 – Anna Lene Seidler
  • Feasibility of Umbilical Cord Blood Collection in Neonates at Risk of Brain Damage-A Step Toward Autologous Cell Therapy for a High-risk Population

    Cell Transplant. 2021 Jan-Dec;30:963689721992065. doi: 10.1177/0963689721992065.ABSTRACTEvidence for umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapies as a potential intervention for neurological diseases is emerging. To date, most existing trials worked with allogenic cells, as the collection of autologous UCB from high-risk patients is challenging. In obstetric emergencies the collection cannot be planned. In preterm infants, late cord clamping and anatomic conditions may reduce the availability. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of UCB collection in neonates at increased risk of brain damage. Infants from four high-risk groups were included: newborns with perinatal hypoxemia, gestational age (GA) ≤30 + 0 weeks and/or birthweight <1,500 g, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), or monochorionic twins with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Feasibility of collection, quantity and quality of obtained UCB [total nucleated cell count (TNC), volume, sterility, and cell viability], and neonatal outcome were assessed. UCB collection was successful in 141 of 177 enrolled patients (hypoxemia n = 10; GA ≤30 + 0 weeks n = 54; IUGR n = 71; TTTS n = 6). Twenty-six cases were missed. The amount of missed cases per month declined over the time. Volume of collected UCB ranged widely (median: 24.5 ml, range: 5.0-102 ml) and contained a median of 0.77 × 108 TNC (range: 0.01-13.0 × 108). TNC and UCB volume correlated significantly with GA. A total of 10.7% (19/177) of included neonates developed brain lesions. To conclude, collection of UCB in neonates at high risk of brain damage is feasible with a multidisciplinary approach and intensive training. High prevalence of brain damage makes UCB collection worthwhile. Collected autologous UCB from mature neonates harbors a sufficient cell count for potential therapy. However, quality and quantity of obtained UCB are critical for potential therapy in preterm infants. Therefore, for extremely preterm infants alternative cell sources such as UCB tissue should be investigated for autologous treatment options because of the low yield of UCB.PMID:33631961 | DOI:10.1177/0963689721992065…
    26 February 2021 12:00 – Angela Segler
  • Impact of Acute and Chronic Hypoxia-Ischemia on the Transitional Circulation

    Pediatrics. 2021 Mar;147(3):e2020016972. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-016972.ABSTRACTThe transition from intrauterine life to extrauterine existence encompasses significant cardiorespiratory adaptations. These include rapid lung aeration and increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). Perinatal asphyxia and fetal growth restriction can severely hamper this transition. Hypoxia is the common denominator in these 2 disease states, with the former characterized by acute insult and the latter by utero-placental insufficiency and a chronic hypoxemic state. Both may manifest as hemodynamic instability. In this review, we emphasize the role of physiologic-based cord clamping in supplementing PBF during transition. The critical role of lung aeration in initiating pulmonary gas exchange and increasing PBF is discussed. Physiologic studies in animal models have enabled greater understanding of the mechanisms and effects of various therapies on transitional circulation. With data from sheep models, we elaborate instrumentation for monitoring of cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology and discuss the combined effect of chest compressions and adrenaline in improving transition at birth. Lastly, physiologic adaptation influencing management in human neonatal cohorts with respect to cardiac and vascular impairments in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and growth restriction is discussed. Impairments in right ventricular function and vascular mechanics hold the key to prognostication and understanding of therapeutic rationale in these critically ill cohorts. The right ventricle and pulmonary circulation seem to be especially affected and may be explored as therapeutic targets. The role of comprehensive assessments using targeted neonatal echocardiography as a longitudinal, reliable, and easily accessible tool, enabling precision medicine facilitating physiologically appropriate treatment choices, is discussed.PMID:33622795 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-016972…
    24 February 2021 12:00 – Arvind Sehgal
  • Management of labour, puerperium, and lactation in SARS-CoV-2 positive women. Multicentric study in the Valencian Community

    Enferm Clin. 2021 Jan 28:S1130-8621(21)00033-4. doi: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2021.01.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal and perinatal impact of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 positive polymerase chain reaction during childbirth and post clinical period.METHOD: Observational descriptive, retrospective, and multicentre study carried out through the review of clinical records of pregnant women admitted for delivery from 1 March to 30 June 2020.RESULTS: Thirteen women with SARS-CoV-2 positive polymerase chain reaction were tested. The prevalence of positive cases was 0.48% of the total number of births attended during the study period. None of the mothers developed complications from COVID-19 infection, nor did they require admission to the Intensive Care Unit. Of the births,15.4% ended in caesarean section, 7.7% were premature, 53.8% of the newborns were isolated from their mothers, 61.5% had late clamping of the umbilical cord and the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge was 76.9%. All the newborns were polymerase chain reaction-negative for COVID-19 and had no postpartum complications.CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission during childbirth in newborns of COVID-19 positive mothers has not been reported. Clinical practices not supported by scientific evidence were detected at the beginning of the pandemic and adapted to international recommendations as the pandemic evolved.PMID:33610456 | PMC:PMC7843032 | DOI:10.1016/j.enfcli.2021.01.006…
    21 February 2021 12:00 – Rafael Vila-Candel
  • Knowledge and practices of immediate newborn care among midwives in selected health care facilities in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Pan Afr Med J. 2020 Nov 24;37:263. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.37.263.24628. eCollection 2020.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: almost 99% of neonatal deaths occur in developing countries and these deaths can be prevented by the presence of a skilled birth attendant during labour. This study therefore assessed the knowledge and practices of midwives towards immediate newborn care.METHODS: this study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Eighty nine midwives were selected using purposive sampling technique from the two health facilities. Questionnaire was adapted from helping babies breathe manual. Data collected were analyzed with SPSS version 25 and the results were presented using descriptive statistics.RESULTS: the mean age of the respondents was 33.20 years ± 8.07. More than half of the midwives (56.2%) had a good knowledge on immediate newborn care. About 62.9% had good practices of immediate new born care, though some still carry out some obsolete practices like routine suctioning of the airway of newborns, immediate cleaning/removal of the vernix caseosa with olive oil and immediate cord clamping.CONCLUSION: a bit above average of the midwives had good knowledge about immediate newborn care and some of the midwives still carry out obsolete practices that has been judge as non-beneficial and are not in line with recommendations of World Health Organization/UNICEF on immediate newborn care. This study therefore recommends that midwives undergo training and retraining on immediate newborn care and there should be increased awareness and education on recent up to date practices of immediate newborn care.PMID:33598078 | PMC:PMC7864274 | DOI:10.11604/pamj.2020.37.263.24628…
    18 February 2021 12:00 – Deborah Tolulope Esan
  • Mistreatment of newborns after childbirth in health facilities in Nepal: Results from a prospective cohort observational study

    PLoS One. 2021 Feb 17;16(2):e0246352. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246352. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Patient experience of care reflects the quality of health care in health facilities. While there are multiple studies documenting abuse and disrespect to women during childbirth, there is limited evidence on the mistreatment of newborns immediately after childbirth. This paper addresses the evidence gap by assessing the prevalence and risk factors associated with mistreatment of newborns after childbirth in Nepal, based on a large-scale observational study.METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted over a period of 18 months in 4 public referral hospitals in Nepal. All newborns born at the facilities during the study period, who breathed spontaneously and were observed, were included. A set of indicators to measure mistreatment for newborns was analysed. Principal component analysis was used to construct a single newborn mistreatment index. Uni-variate, multi-variate, and multi-level analysis was done to measure the association between the newborn mistreatment index and demographic, obstetric, and neonatal characteristics. A total of 31,804 births of newborns who spontaneously breathed were included. Among the included newborns, 63.0% (95% CI, 62.5-63.5) received medical interventions without taking consent from the parents, 25.0% (95% CI, 24.5-25.5) were not treated with kindness and respect (roughly handled), and 21.4% (95% CI, 20.9-21.8) of them were suctioned with no medical need. Among the newborns, 71.7% (95% CI, 71.2-72.3) had the cord clamped within 1 minute and 77.6% (95% CI, 77.1-78.1) were not breast fed within 1 hour of birth. Only 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2-3.8) were kept in skin to skin contact in the delivery room after birth. The mistreatment index showed maximum variation in mistreatment among those infants born to women of relatively disadvantaged ethnic groups and infants born to women with 2 or previous births. After adjusting for hospital heterogeneity, infants born to women aged 30-34 years (β, -0.041; p value, 0.01) and infants born to women aged 35 years or more (β, -0.064; p value, 0.029) were less mistreated in reference to infants born to women aged 18 years or less. Infants born to women from the relatively disadvantaged (chhetri) ethnic groups (β, 0.077; p value, 0.000) were more likely to be mistreated than the infants born to relatively advantaged (brahmin) ethnic groups. Female newborns (β, 0.016; p value, 0.015) were more likely to be mistreated than male newborns.CONCLUSIONS: The mistreatment of spontaneously breathing newborns is high in public hospitals in Nepal. Mistreatment varied by hospital, maternal ethnicity, maternal age, and sex of the newborn. Reducing mistreatment of newborns will require interventions at policy, health system, and individual level. Further, implementation studies will be required to identify effective interventions to reduce inequity and mistreatment of newborns at birth.PMID:33596224 | PMC:PMC7888656 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0246352…
    17 February 2021 12:00 – Ashish K C
  • Neonatal Golden Hour: A survey of Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network units' early stabilisation practices for very preterm infants

    J Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/jpc.15360. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAIM: To identify current 'Golden Hour' practices for initial stabilisation of very preterm infants <32 weeks' gestational age (GA) within tertiary neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN).METHODS: A 76-question survey regarding delivery room (DR) and NICU stabilisation practices was distributed electronically to directors of tertiary perinatal NICUs in the ANZNN in January 2019. Responses were categorised into GA subgroups: 23-24, 25-27 and 28-31 weeks' GA.RESULTS: The response rate was 100% (24/24 units). Delayed cord clamping (DCC) was practised 'always' or 'often' by 21 units (88%). All units used oximetry to target oxygen saturations, and 23/24 (96%) commenced resuscitation in <40% oxygen. Ten units (42%) routinely used DR electrocardiography monitoring. CPAP was preferred as primary respiratory support in one-third of units for infants born 23-24 weeks' GA, compared with 19 units (79%) at 25-27 weeks' GA and 23 units (96%) at 28-31 weeks' GA. DR skin-to-skin care was uncommon, particularly at lower GAs. Five units (21%) used minimally invasive surfactant therapy for non-intubated infants at 23-24 weeks' GA, 13 units (54%) at 25-27 weeks' GA and 16 units (67%) at 28-31 weeks' GA.CONCLUSIONS: Most Golden Hour stabilisation practices align with international guidelines. Consistency exists with respect to DCC, oxygen saturation targeting and primary CPAP use for infants 25 weeks' GA and above. Where evidence is less certain, practices vary across ANZNN NICUs. Time targets for stabilisation measures may help standardise practice for this population.PMID:33543835 | DOI:10.1111/jpc.15360…
    5 February 2021 12:00 – Kate A Hodgson
  • Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial

    PLoS One. 2021 Jan 26;16(1):e0246109. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246109. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is a placental to new-born transfusion strategy recommended by obstetric and gynaecological societies. Though not widely adopted, umbilical cord milking (UCM) may achieve faster transfusion when DCC cannot be performed such as when a neonate requires resuscitation.METHODS: Pragmatic, two-arm, randomized clinical trial in which consenting women in spontaneous labour or provider-initiated delivery at 28 to less than 37 weeks at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were enrolled. At delivery, stable preterm infants were randomized to UCM (4 times) or DCC (60 seconds). Neonatal samples were collected for analysis at 24 hours after delivery. Maternal primary PPH (within 24 hours) and neonatal jaundice (within 1 week) were evaluated clinically. The primary outcome was the mean neonatal haemoglobin level at 24 hours after birth. Modified Intention to treat analysis was used for all outcomes. P-value was significant at p<0.05.RESULTS: Between March 2018 to March 2019, 344 pregnant women underwent screening, and 280 eligible participants were randomized when delivery was imminent. The intervention was not performed on 19 ineligible neonates. Of the remaining 260 neonates, 133 underwent UCM while 128 underwent DCC. Maternal and neonatal baseline characteristics were similar. The mean neonatal haemoglobin (17.1 vs 17.5 grams per decilitre, p = 0.191), haematocrit (49.6% vs 50.3%, p = 0.362), anaemia (9.8% vs 11.7%, p = 0.627), maternal PPH (2.3% vs 3.1%, p = 0.719) were similar between UCM and DCC respectfully. However, neonatal polycythaemia (2.3% vs 8.6%, p = 0.024) and neonatal jaundice (6.8% vs 15.6%, p = 0.024) were statistically significantly lower in UCM compared to DCC.CONCLUSION: UCM compared to DCC for preterm neonates resulted in similar outcomes for neonatal haemoglobin, haematocrit, anaemia and maternal primary PPH and a lower proportion of neonatal polycythaemia and clinical jaundice. UCM offers a comparable method of placental transfusion compared to DCC and may be considered as an alternative to DCC in preterm neonates at 28 to <37 weeks' gestation.PMID:33497396 | PMC:PMC7837492 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0246109…
    26 January 2021 12:00 – Mandeep Sura
  • Effects of delayed cord clamping in intrauterine growth-restricted neonates: a randomized controlled trial

    Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 21. doi: 10.1007/s00431-021-03959-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe time of cord clamping in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) neonates remains an area of uncertainty. This assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial compared the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) with early cord clamping (ECC) on the systemic blood flow (SBF) and cerebral hemodynamics in IUGR neonates of gestational age ≥28 weeks, not requiring resuscitation. Eligible newborns were randomized to DCC (cord clamping after 60 s; n=55) or ECC (cord clamping within 30 s; n=55) group immediately after delivery. The primary outcome variable was superior vena cava (SVC) blood flow at 24±2 h. The secondary outcome variables were right ventricular output (RVO), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) blood flow velocity (BFV), superior mesenteric artery (SMA)-BFV and venous hematocrit at 24±2 h, peak total serum bilirubin (TSB), incidences of polycythemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, respiratory distress, feeding intolerance, and necrotizing enterocolitis, outcome, duration of hospital stay, screening audiometry, and serum ferritin levels at the postnatal age of 3 months. Compared to ECC, DCC was associated with significantly higher SVC flow (101.22±21.02 and 81.27±19.12 mL/kg/min, in DCC and ECC groups, respectively; p<0.0001), and significantly increased RVO, SMA-BFV, venous hematocrit, and serum ferritin levels. Though peak TSB was significantly higher with DCC, duration of phototherapy was comparable. ACA-BFV, incidence of polycythemia, and other outcomes were comparable between the groups.Conclusions: DCC was a safe and beneficial intervention in IUGR infants with an improved SBF and SMA-BFV and an increased hematocrit and serum ferritin levels without higher incidences of polycythemia and requirement of phototherapy for significant hyperbilirubinemia.Trial registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2019/05/018904) What is Known: • Delayed cord clamping (DCC) increases superior vena cava (SVC) blood flow in preterm neonates. • DCC increases hematocrit and serum ferritin in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) neonates, but there may be an associated risk of polycythemia and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. What is New: • DCC increases SVC blood flow, right ventricular output, superior mesenteric artery blood flow velocity, venous hematocrit, and serum ferritin in IUGR neonates. • Incidences of polycythemia and duration of phototherapy for significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia do not increase with DCC.PMID:33479800 | DOI:10.1007/s00431-021-03959-7…
    22 January 2021 12:00 – Kanhu Charan Digal
  • Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19: Data From the Spanish Society of Neonatology Registry

    Pediatrics. 2021 Feb;147(2):e2020015065. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-015065.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: To describe neonatal and maternal characteristics of the largest prospective cohort of newborns from mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the data of which were prospectively collected from the nationwide registry of the Spanish Society of Neonatology.METHODS: Between March 8, 2020, and May 26, 2020, the data of 503 neonates born to 497 mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 during pregnancy or at the time of delivery were collected by 79 hospitals throughout Spain.RESULTS: Maternal symptoms were similar to that of the general population, with 5% of severe forms. In 45.8% of asymptomatic women at the time of delivery, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was detected because of recommendations established in Spain to perform COVID-19 screening in all women admitted to the hospital for labor. The rate of preterm deliveries was 15.7% and of cesarean deliveries, 33%. The most common diagnostic test was detection of viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs at a median age of 3 hours after delivery (1-12 hours). Almost one-half of neonates were left skin-to-skin after delivery, and delayed clamping of umbilical cords was performed in 43% of neonates. Also, 62.3% of asymptomatic neonates were managed with rooming-in. Maternal milk was received by 76.5% of neonates, 204 of them as exclusive breastfeeding.CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicates that there is no need for separation of mothers from neonates, allowing delayed cord clamping and skin-to-skin contact along with maintenance of breastfeeding in a high percentage of newborns from mothers with COVID-19.PMID:33479162 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-015065…
    22 January 2021 12:00 – Manuel Sánchez-Luna
  • Effects of timing of umbilical cord clamping on preventing early infancy anemia in low-risk Japanese term infants with planned breastfeeding: a randomized controlled trial

    Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2021 Jan 19;7(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s40748-021-00125-7.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Japanese infants have relatively higher risk of anemia and neonatal jaundice. This study aimed to assess the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on the incidence of anemia during early infancy in low-risk Japanese term infants with planned exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months. This study also aimed to explore the effects of DCC on neonatal jaundice.METHODS: We conducted an open-label, parallel-arm, multicenter randomized controlled trial of DCC (clamping the cord after more than a minute or pulsation stops) vs. early cord clamping (ECC; clamping the cord within 15 s) at one birth center and two clinics in Japan. Low-risk pregnant women planning to have a vaginal birth and to exclusively breastfeed and term singleton infants delivered in cephalic presentation were included in this study. The primary outcome was spectrophotometric estimation of hemoglobin at 4 months. Secondary outcomes were anemia incidence at 4 months, four outcomes related to neonatal jaundice, hematocrit levels, and related outcomes.RESULTS: Overall, 150 pregnant women were recruited. Participants (N = 138) were randomly allocated to two groups (DCC n = 68, ECC n = 70). There were no significant differences between the two groups in spectrophotometric estimation of hemoglobin at 4 months: mean difference = 0.1 g/dL, 95% confidence interval - 0.14, 0.35, DCC 12.4 g/dL, ECC 12.3 g/dL. Only the hematocrit levels on days 3 to 5 were significantly higher in the DCC group than in the ECC group: DCC 57.0%, ECC 52.6%, mean difference = 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.61, 6.20. There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes, including outcomes related to neonatal jaundice.CONCLUSION: Among low-risk Japanese term infants with planned exclusive breastfeeding, DCC showed no significant effects on spectrophotometric hemoglobin levels at 4 months compared with ECC. We observed significantly higher hematocrit levels on days 3 to 5 in infants who underwent DCC, while these levels were within the normal range. Jaundice outcomes remained similar to those of infants who underwent ECC. Although a larger sample size is required to assess the effects of cord clamping on neonatal jaundice, DCC may prevent anemia in newborn infants.TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR; UMIN000022573, 06/01/2016 - retrospectively registered, | PMC:PMC7814648 | DOI:10.1186/s40748-021-00125-7…
    20 January 2021 12:00 – Eriko Shinohara
  • A critical review of the 2020 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation treatment recommendations for resuscitating the newly born infant

    Acta Paediatr. 2021 Jan 8. doi: 10.1111/apa.15754. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe 2020 recommendations from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation are an improved version of the 2015 version. The algorithm and 15 procedures are unchanged from 2015, but there are six procedures with new or changed recommendations. One new recommendation is briefing/debriefing following neonatal resuscitation. Procedures with changed suggestions/recommendations are as follows: suctioning of non-vigorous infants delivered through meconium-stained amniotic fluid, sustained inflation of preterm infants, optimising epinephrine (adrenaline), vascular access and discontinuing resuscitative efforts. CONCLUSION: In this review, we summarise the present recommendations and offer additional comments and views regarding heart rate detection, cord clamping, oxygenation and thermal control.PMID:33417251 | DOI:10.1111/apa.15754…
    8 January 2021 12:00 – Ola D Saugstad
  • Neonatal Outcomes at Extreme Prematurity by Gestational Age Versus Birth Weight in a Contemporary Cohort

    Am J Perinatol. 2021 Jan 6. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1722606. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe the rates of neonatal death and severe neonatal morbidity in a contemporary cohort, as well as to evaluate the predictive value of birth gestational age (GA) and birth weight, independently and combined, for neonatal mortality and morbidity in the same contemporary cohort.STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of an international, multicenter randomized controlled trial of delayed umbilical cord clamping versus umbilical cord milking in preterm infants born at 23 0/7 to 31 6/7 weeks of gestation. The current analysis was restricted to infants delivered <28 weeks. The primary outcomes of this analysis were neonatal death and a composite of severe neonatal morbidity. Incidence of outcomes was compared by weeks of GA, with planned subanalysis comparing small for gestational age (SGA) versus non-SGA neonates. Multivariable logistic regression was then used to model these outcomes based on birth GA, birth weight, or a combination of both as primary independent predictors to determine which had superior ability to predict outcomes.RESULTS: Of 474 neonates in the original trial, 180 (38%) were included in this analysis. Overall, death occurred in 27 (15%) and severe morbidity in 139 (77%) neonates. Rates of mortality and morbidity declined with increasing GA (mortality 54% at 23 vs. 9% at 27 weeks). SGA infants (n = 25) had significantly higher mortality compared with non-SGA infants across all GAs (p < 0.01). There was no difference in the predictive value for neonatal death or severe morbidity between the three prediction options (GA, birth weight, or GA and birth weight).CONCLUSION: Death and severe neonatal morbidity declined with advancing GA, with higher rates of death in SGA infants. Birth GA and birth weight were both good predictors of outcomes; however, combining the two was not more predictive, even in SGA infants.KEY POINTS: · We performed a secondary analysis of multicenter randomized clinical trials.. · The study included only extremely preterm neonates <28 weeks.. · We provide rates of neonatal morbidity in a contemporary cohort..PMID:33406539 | DOI:10.1055/s-0040-1722606…
    6 January 2021 12:00 – Elizabeth B Ausbeck
  • Applying the principle 'First Do No Harm' during the pandemic

    BJOG. 2020 Nov 28:10.1111/1471-0528.16607. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.16607. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTJiménez and colleagues (BJOG 2020 xxxx) present outcomes from 403 SARS‐CoV‐2 positive pregnant women and their newborns that received either delayed cord clamping > 30 seconds (DCC) or early cord clamping < 30 seconds (ECC). The recommendations from the Spanish Ministry of health and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) discouraged the use of DCC in efforts to reduce the potential for vertical transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 (Poon LC, et al. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2020, 149, 273‐286). Jiménez and colleagues demonstrated that there was no increased transmission with DCC. Overall, the transmission rates were low. Infants who had DCC also had higher rates of breastfeeding and early skin to skin.PMID:33248012 | PMC:PMC7753430 | DOI:10.1111/1471-0528.16607…
    28 November 2020 12:00 – A C Katheria
  • Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth: ACOG Committee Opinion, Number 814

    Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Dec;136(6):e100-e106. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004167.ABSTRACTDelayed umbilical cord clamping appears to be beneficial for term and preterm infants. In term infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping increases hemoglobin levels at birth and improves iron stores in the first several months of life, which may have a favorable effect on developmental outcomes. There is a small increase in the incidence of jaundice that requires phototherapy in term infants undergoing delayed umbilical cord clamping. Consequently, obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers adopting delayed umbilical cord clamping in term infants should ensure that mechanisms are in place to monitor and treat neonatal jaundice. In preterm infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant neonatal benefits, including improved transitional circulation, better establishment of red blood cell volume, decreased need for blood transfusion, and lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage or increased blood loss at delivery, nor was it associated with a difference in postpartum hemoglobin levels or the need for blood transfusion. Given the benefits to most newborns and concordant with other professional organizations, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping in vigorous term and preterm infants for at least 30-60 seconds after birth. The ability to provide delayed umbilical cord clamping may vary among institutions and settings; decisions in those circumstances are best made by the team caring for the mother-infant dyad.PMID:33214530 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004167…
    20 November 2020 12:00
  • Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth: ACOG Committee Opinion Summary, Number 814

    Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Dec;136(6):1238-1239. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004168.ABSTRACTDelayed umbilical cord clamping appears to be beneficial for term and preterm infants. In term infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping increases hemoglobin levels at birth and improves iron stores in the first several months of life, which may have a favorable effect on developmental outcomes. There is a small increase in the incidence of jaundice that requires phototherapy in term infants undergoing delayed umbilical cord clamping. Consequently, obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers adopting delayed umbilical cord clamping in term infants should ensure that mechanisms are in place to monitor and treat neonatal jaundice. In preterm infants, delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant neonatal benefits, including improved transitional circulation, better establishment of red blood cell volume, decreased need for blood transfusion, and lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage or increased blood loss at delivery, nor was it associated with a difference in postpartum hemoglobin levels or the need for blood transfusion. Given the benefits to most newborns and concordant with other professional organizations, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now recommends a delay in umbilical cord clamping in vigorous term and preterm infants for at least 30-60 seconds after birth. The ability to provide delayed umbilical cord clamping may vary among institutions and settings; decisions in those circumstances are best made by the team caring for the mother-infant dyad.PMID:33214527 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004168…
    20 November 2020 12:00
  • Physiologic-Based Cord Clamping Maintains Core Temperature vs. Immediate Cord Clamping in Near-Term Lambs

    Front Pediatr. 2020 Oct 23;8:584983. doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.584983. eCollection 2020.ABSTRACTBackground: Physiologic-based cord clamping (PBCC) involves deferring umbilical cord clamping until after lung aeration. It is unclear if infant is at risk of becoming hypothermic during PBCC. Objectives: To test if PBCC would maintain core temperature more effectively than immediate cord clamping (ICC). Design: At 0.93 gestation, fetal lambs were surgically exteriorized and instrumented from pregnant ewes under general anesthesia. Prior to the start of the experiment, lambs were thoroughly dried, placed on hot water bottles, and core temperature was continuously monitored using a rectal thermometer. PBCC lambs (n = 21), received intermittent positive pressure ventilation (iPPV) for ≥5 min prior to umbilical cord clamping. In ICC lambs (n = 23), iPPV commenced within 60 s after umbilical cord clamping. iPPV was provided with heated/humidified gas. Lambs were moved under a radiant warmer after umbilical cord clamping. Additional warmth was provided using a plastic overlay, hairdryer, and extra water bottles, as needed. Two-way mixed and repeated measures one-way ANOVAs were used to compare temperature changes between and within a single group, respectively, over time. Results: Basal fetal parameters including core temperature were similar between groups. ICC lambs had a significant reduction in temperature compared to PBCC lambs (p < 0.001), evident by 1 min (p = 0.002). ICC lambs decreased temperature by 0.51°C (± 0.42) and 0.79°C (± 0.55) at 5 and 10 min respectively (p < 0.001). In PBCC lambs, temperature did not significantly change before or after umbilical cord clamping (p = 0.4 and p = 0.3, respectively). Conclusions: PBCC stabilized core temperature at delivery better than ICC in term lambs. Hypothermia may not be a significant risk during PBCC.PMID:33194919 | PMC:PMC7644840 | DOI:10.3389/fped.2020.584983…
    16 November 2020 12:00 – Douglas A Blank
  • The first 2 h after birth: prevalence and factors associated with neonatal care practices from a multicountry, facility-based, observational study

    Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Jan;9(1):e72-e80. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30422-8. Epub 2020 Nov 12.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Amid efforts to improve the quality of care for women and neonates during childbirth, there is growing interest in the experience of care, including respectful care practices. However, there is little research on the prevalence of practices that might constitute mistreatment of neonates. This study aims to describe the care received by neonates up to 2 h after birth in a sample of three countries in west Africa.METHODS: Data from this multicountry, facility-based, observational study were collected on 15 neonatal care practices across nine facilities in Ghana, Guinea, and Nigeria, as part of WHO's wider multicountry study on how women are treated during childbirth. Women were eligible if they were admitted to the participating health facilities for childbirth, in early established labour or active labour, aged 15 years or older, and provided written informed consent on behalf of themselves and their neonate. All labour observations were continuous, one-to-one observations of women and neonates by independent data collectors. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine associations between these neonatal care practices, maternal and neonate characteristics, and maternal mistreatment. Early neonate deaths, stillbirths, and higher order multiple births were excluded from analysis.FINDINGS: Data collection took place from Sept 19, 2016, to Feb 26, 2017, in Nigeria; from Aug 1, 2017, to Jan 18, 2018, in Ghana; and from July 1 to Oct 30, 2017, in Guinea. We included data for 362 women-neonate dyads (356 [98%] with available data for neonatal care practices) in Nigeria, 760 (749 [99%]) in Ghana, and 558 (522 [94%]) in Guinea. Delayed cord clamping was done for most neonates (1493 [91·8%] of 1627); other practices, such as skin-to-skin contact, were less commonly done (1048 [64·4%]). During the first 2 h after birth, separation of the mother and neonate occurred in 844 (51·9%) of 1627 cases; and was more common for mothers who were single (adjusted odds ratio [AOR; adjusting for country, maternal age, education, marital status, neonate weight at birth, and neonate sex] 1·8, 95% CI 1·3-2·6) than those who were married or cohabiting. Lack of maternal education was associated with increased likelihood of neonates not receiving recommended breastfeeding practices. Neonates with a low birthweight (<2·5 kg) were more likely (1·7, 1·1-2·8) to not begin breastfeeding on demand than full weight neonates. When women experienced physical abuse from providers within 1 h before childbirth, their neonates were more likely to be slapped (AOR 1·9, 1·1-3·9).INTERPRETATION: A high proportion of neonates did not receive recommended care practices, and some received practices that might constitute mistreatment. Further research is needed on understanding and measuring mistreatment to improve care, including respectful care, for mothers and neonates.FUNDING: US Agency for International Development, and the UNDP/UN Population Fund/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO.PMID:33189189 | PMC:PMC7790760 | DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30422-8…
    15 November 2020 12:00 – Emma Sacks
  • Umbilical cord clamping and skin-to-skin contact in deliveries from women positive for SARS-CoV-2: a prospective observational study

    BJOG. 2020 Nov 13:10.1111/1471-0528.16597. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.16597. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that delayed cord clamping (DCC) is safe in mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study involving epidemiological information from 403 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 between 1 March and 31 May 2020. Data were collected from 70 centres that participate in the Spanish Registry of COVID-19.METHODS: Patients' information was collected from their medical chart.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The rate of perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and development of the infection in neonates within 14 days postpartum.RESULTS: The early cord clamping (ECC) group consisted of 231 infants (57.3%) and the DCC group consisted of 172 infants (42.7%). Five positive newborns (1.7% of total tests performed) were identified with the nasopharyngeal PCR tests performed in the first 12 hours postpartum, two from the ECC group (1.7%) and three from the DCC group (3.6%). No significant differences between groups were found regarding neonatal tests for SARS-CoV-2. No confirmed cases of vertical transmission were detected. The percentage of mothers who made skin-to-skin contact within the first 24 hours after delivery was significantly higher in the DCC group (84.3% versus 45.9%). Breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period was also significantly higher in the DCC group (77.3% versus 50.2%).CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show no differences in perinatal outcomes when performing ECC or DCC, and skin-to-skin contact, or breastfeeding.TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that delayed cord clamping is safe in mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.PMID:33187026 | PMC:PMC7753553 | DOI:10.1111/1471-0528.16597…
    13 November 2020 12:00 – I Mejía Jiménez
  • Changes in heart rate from 5 s to 5 min after birth in vaginally delivered term newborns with delayed cord clamping

    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Nov 10:fetalneonatal-2020-320179. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-320179. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To determine heart rate centiles during the first 5 min after birth in healthy term newborns delivered vaginally with delayed cord clamping.DESIGN: Single-centre prospective observational study.SETTING: Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, March-August 2019.PATIENTS: Term newborns delivered vaginally were eligible for inclusion. Newborns delivered by vacuum or forceps or who received any medical intervention were excluded.INTERVENTIONS: A novel dry electrode electrocardiography monitor (NeoBeat) was applied to the newborn's chest immediately after birth. The newborns were placed on their mother's chest or abdomen, dried and stimulated, and cord clamping was delayed for at least 1 min.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate was recorded at 1 s intervals, and the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th centiles were calculated from 5 s to 5 min after birth.RESULTS: 898 newborns with a mean (SD) birth weight 3594 (478) g and gestational age 40 (1) weeks were included. The heart rate increased rapidly from median (IQR) 122 (98-146) to 168 (146-185) beats per minute (bpm) during the first 30 s after birth, peaking at 175 (157-189) bpm at 61 s after birth, and thereafter slowly decreasing. The third centile reached 100 bpm at 34 s, suggesting that heart rates <100 bpm during the first minutes after birth are uncommon in healthy newborns after delayed cord clamping.CONCLUSION: This report presents normal heart rate centiles from 5 s to 5 min after birth in healthy term newborns delivered vaginally with delayed cord clamping.PMID:33172876 | DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2020-320179…
    11 November 2020 12:00 – Peder Aleksander Bjorland
  • Feasibility and accuracy of cord blood sampling for admission laboratory investigations: A pilot trial

    J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov 10. doi: 10.1111/jpc.15273. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAIM: Phlebotomy losses greatly contribute to anaemia following preterm birth. Therefore, the possibility of drawing initial tests from the placenta seems attractive. There is a lack of literature regarding the feasibility and accuracy of pathology tests taken from umbilical arterial and venous (UAB/UVB) compared to blood collected from the newborn.METHODS: UAB and UVB complete blood pictures were compared with the initial neonatal blood test. The relationship between UAB, UVB and neonatal complete blood picture values was determined by Spearman's Rho correlation with absolute values compared by Kruskal-Wallis. P < 0.05 was considered significant.RESULTS: Neonatal haemoglobin, white cell count, immature/total ratio and platelets were significantly correlated to the corresponding values in the UAB and UVB (all P < 0.001). While UAB and UVB haemoglobin and white cell count were similar, both were significantly lower than the neonatal values (P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). No difference was seen for immature/total ratio and platelet concentrations. UVB blood culture (BC) was feasible (90%), even with delayed cord clamping, and the UVB BC volume was significantly higher (P < 0.001), with a low rate of BC contamination (1.5%).CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the feasibility and accuracy of umbilical blood in place of blood collected from the newborn. This reduces the phlebotomy losses and allows higher blood volume collection which may increase the sensitivity of BC collection.PMID:33171536 | DOI:10.1111/jpc.15273…
    10 November 2020 12:00 – Poliana De B Medeiros
  • Evaluating implementation strategies for essential newborn care interventions in low- and low middle-income countries: a systematic review

    Health Policy Plan. 2020 Nov 1;35(Supplement_2):ii47-ii65. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czaa122.ABSTRACTNeonatal mortality remains a significant health problem in low-income settings. Low-cost essential newborn care (ENC) interventions with proven efficacy and cost-effectiveness exist but have not reached high coverage (≥90%). Little is known about the strategies used to implement these interventions or how they relate to improved coverage. We conducted a systematic review of implementation strategies and implementation outcomes for ENC in low- and low middle-income countries capturing evidence from five medical and global health databases from 1990 to 2018. We included studies of implementation of delayed cord clamping, immediate drying, skin-to-skin contact (SSC) and/or early initiation of breastfeeding implemented in the first hour (facility-based studies) or the 1st day (community-based studies) of life. Implementation strategies and outcomes were categorized according to published frameworks: Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change and Outcomes for Implementation Research. The relationship between implementation strategies and outcomes was evaluated using standardized mean differences and correlation coefficients. Forty-three papers met inclusion criteria. Interventions included community-based care/health promotion and facility-based support and health care provider training. Included studies used 3-31 implementation strategies, though the consistency with which strategies were applied was variable. Conduct educational meetings was the most frequently used strategy. Included studies reported 1-4 implementation outcomes with coverage reported most frequently. Heterogeneity was high and no statistically significant association was found between the number of implementation strategies used and coverage of ENC. This review highlights several challenges in learning from implementation of ENC in low- and low middle-income countries, particularly poor description of interventions and implementation outcomes. We recommend use of UK Medical Research Council guidelines (2015) for process evaluations and checklists for reporting implementation studies. Improved reporting of implementation research in this setting is necessary to learn how to improve service delivery and outcomes and thereby reduce neonatal mortality.PMID:33156939 | PMC:PMC7646733 | DOI:10.1093/heapol/czaa122…
    6 November 2020 12:00 – Kimberly Peven
  • Perinatal Outcomes of Subjects Enrolled in a Multicenter Trial with a Waiver of Antenatal Consent

    Am J Perinatol. 2020 Nov 3. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1719184. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether outcomes differed between infants enrolled in the PREMOD2 trial and those otherwise eligible but not enrolled, and whether the use of waiver effected these differences.STUDY DESIGN: The multicenter PREMOD2 (PREmature infants receiving Milking Or Delayed cord clamping) trial was approved for waiver of antenatal consent by six of the nine sites institutional review boards, while three sites exclusively used antenatal consent. Every randomized subject delivered at a site with a waiver of consent was approached for postnatal consent to allow for data collection. Four of those six sites' IRBs required the study team to attempt antenatal consent when possible. Three sites exclusively used antenatal consent.RESULTS: Enrolled subjects had higher Apgar scores, less use of positive pressure ventilation, a lower rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and a less frequent occurrence of the combined outcome of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or death. A significantly greater number of infants were enrolled at sites with an option of waiver of consent (66 vs. 26%, risk ratio = 2.54, p < 0.001). At sites with an option of either approaching families before delivery or after delivery with a waiver of antenatal consent, those approached prior to delivery refused consent 40% (range 15-74% across six sites) of the time.CONCLUSION: PREMOD2 trial demonstrated analytical validity limitations because of the variable mix of antenatal consent and waiver of consent. A waiver of antenatal consent for minimal risk interventional trials conducted during the intrapartum period will be more successful in enrolling a representative sample of low and high-risk infants if investigators are able to enroll all eligible subjects.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: identifier: NCT03019367.KEY POINTS: · Waiver of consent is when informed consent cannot be obtained prior to delivery.. · Cord milking is a procedure in which blood is pushed (stripped) two to four times towards the newborn.. · Delayed clamping means the umbilical cord is not clamped immediately after birth..PMID:33142340 | DOI:10.1055/s-0040-1719184…
    3 November 2020 12:00 – Anup C Katheria
  • Clinical care of pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19: Living recommendations from the National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce

    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2020 Dec;60(6):840-851. doi: 10.1111/ajo.13270. Epub 2020 Oct 29.ABSTRACTTo date, 18 living recommendations for the clinical care of pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 have been issued by the National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce. This includes recommendations on mode of birth, delayed umbilical cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, rooming-in, antenatal corticosteroids, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, disease-modifying treatments (including dexamethasone, remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine), venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and advanced respiratory support interventions (prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). Through continuous evidence surveillance, these living recommendations are updated in near real-time to ensure clinicians in Australia have reliable, evidence-based guidelines for clinical decision-making. Please visit for the latest recommendation updates.PMID:33119139 | PMC:PMC7820999 | DOI:10.1111/ajo.13270…
    29 October 2020 11:00 – Joshua P Vogel
  • Investigation of the relationship between cord clamping time and risk of hyperbilirubinemia

    Turk J Pediatr. 2020;62(5):756-762. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2020.05.006.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Although the relationship between umbilical cord clamping time and various parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb) levels, iron deficiency, and risk of neonatal jaundice has previously been studied, to the best of our knowleadge there have been no studies investigating the relationship between cord clamping time and the risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the time of umbilical cord clamping and transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements made on various postnatal hours, Hb and serum total bilirubin (STB) levels measured on postnatal 4th day, and the risk of development of significant hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy treatment.METHODS: Eligible newborns were divided into two groups on the basis of the time of cord clamping: those clamped late (60 seconds or more; Group I) and those clamped early (less than 60 seconds; Group II). Groups were compared with respect to the parameters of cord Hb, postnatal TcB measurements at 6th, 48th, 96th and 168th hours, and 96th hour Hb, STB and direct bilirubin levels.RESULTS: TcB levels at the 96th and 168th hour were significantly higher in Group I when compared to Group II (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The 96th hour STB level was significantly higher in Group I when compared to Group II (p < 0.001). The need of phototherapy requirement was higher in Group I when compared to Group II (p=0.001). Increase in cord blood Hb for each 1 gr/dl caused a 3.94-fold increased risk in the requirement of phototherapy treatment. Cord clamping time showed statistically significant positive correlations with both cord blood and 96th hour venous Hb levels, with both 96th hour and 168th hour TcB levels, and with 96th hour STB levels.CONCLUSIONS: Newborns whose cords are clamped late should be followed up closely with respect to high postnatal bilirubin levels and other risks associated with significant hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy treatment.PMID:33108077 | DOI:10.24953/turkjped.2020.05.006…
    27 October 2020 11:00 – Yüksel Yaşartekin
  • Guidelines on Deferred Cord Clamping and Cord Milking: A Systematic Review

    Pediatrics. 2020 Nov;146(5):e20201429. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1429.ABSTRACTCONTEXT: Deferred cord clamping (DCC) saves lives. It reduces extremely preterm infants' mortality by 30%, yet a minority of eligible infants receive it. This may in part be due to lack of awareness or confidence in evidence, or conflicting or vague guidelines.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review clinical practice guidelines and other statements on DCC and cord milking.DATA SOURCES: Ten academic and guideline databases were searched.STUDY SELECTION: Clinical practice guidelines and other statements (position statements and consensus statements) providing at least 1 recommendation on DCC or umbilical cord milking among preterm or term infants were included.DATA EXTRACTION: Data from included statements were extracted by 2 independent reviewers, and discrepancies were resolved through consensus. Guideline quality was appraised with modified Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II and Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Recommendation Excellence tools.RESULTS: Forty-four statements from 35 organizations were included. All endorsed DCC for uncompromised preterm infants, and 11 cautiously stated that cord milking may be considered when DCC is infeasible. Only half (49%) of the recommendations on the optimal duration of DCC were supported by high-quality evidence. Only 8% of statements cited a mortality benefit of DCC for preterm infants.LIMITATIONS: Because systematic reviews of guidelines are relatively novel, there are few tools to inform study execution; however, we used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Recommendation Excellence to assess quality and were methodologically informed by previous systematic reviews of guidelines.CONCLUSIONS: Statements worldwide clearly encouraged DCC. Their implementability would benefit from noting the preterm mortality benefit of DCC and more granularity.PMID:33087551 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-1429…
    22 October 2020 12:00 – Sugee Korale Liyanage
  • Variations in umbilical cord clamping practices in the United States: a national survey of neonatologists

    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 Oct 20:1-7. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1836150. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Since the first publication of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists committee opinion in 2012, and following the update in 2017, multiple institutions in the United States (US) adopted the practice of delayed cord clamping (DCC) and/or umbilical cord milking (UCM) in preterm and term infants. However, there have been variations reported in practices with regard to method of placental transfusion, timing of cord clamping and gestational age thresholds. Furthermore, the optimal cord clamping practice in situations of depressed infants needing resuscitation or in higher-risk delivery situations, such as placental abruption, intrauterine growth restriction, multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, maternal human immunodeficiency virus syndrome/hepatitis or maternal general anesthesia is often debated. An evaluation of these variations and exploration of associated factors was needed to optimally target opportunities for improvement and streamline research activities. The objective of this survey, specifically aimed at neonatologists working in the US was to identify and describe current cord clamping practices and evaluate factors associated with variations.STUDY DESIGN: The survey was distributed electronically to the US neonatologists in August 2019 with a reminder email sent in October 2019. Clinicians were primarily identified from Perinatal Section of AAP, with reminders also sent through various organizations including California Association of Neonatologists, Pediatrix and Envision national groups. Descriptive variables of interest included years of experience practicing neonatology, affiliation with a teaching institution, level of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and practicing region of the US. Questions on variations in cord management practices included information about center specific guideline/protocol, cord clamping practices, gestational age threshold of placental transfusion, performance of UCM and practice in higher-risk delivery situations.RESULTS: The response rate was 14.8%. Among 517 neonatologists whom responded, majority (85.5%) of the practices had a guideline and performed (81.7%) DCC in all gestational ages. The cord clamping practice was predominantly DCC and it was categorized as reporting clamping times <60 s in 46.6% and ≥60 s in 48.7% of responses. A significant association was detected between time of delay in cord clamping and region of practice. The Northeast region was more likely to clamp the cord in <60 s than other regions in the US. More than half of the providers responded not performing any UCM (57.3%) in their practice. Significant associations were detected between performance of UCM and all queried demographic variables independently. Clinicians with >20 years of experience were more likely from institutions performing UCM compared to the providers with fewer years of experience. However, teaching hospitals were less likely to perform UCM compared to non-teaching hospitals. Similarly, practices with level IV NICUs were less likely to perform UCM compared to practices with level III units. Hospitals in the Midwest region of US were less likely to perform UCM compared to hospitals in the Western region. Significant variations were also noticed for not providing placental transfusion in higher-risk deliveries. Demographic and professional factors were noted to be associated with these differences.CONCLUSION: Although the majority of practices have a guideline/protocol and are performing DCC in all gestational ages, there are variations noted with regard to timing, method, and performance in higher-risk deliveries. Demographic and professional factors play an important role in these variations. Future research needs to focus on the modifiable factors to optimize the procedure and impact of DCC.PMID:33081557 | DOI:10.1080/14767058.2020.1836150…
    21 October 2020 12:00 – Arpitha Chiruvolu
  • The effect of delayed cord clamping on blood sugar levels on 34-36 week neonates exposed to late preterm antenatal steroids

    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 Oct 12:1-8. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1832074. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Neonatal hypoglycemia is a known side effect of antenatal betamethasone (BMZ) given for fetal maturation. We sought to investigate if delayed cord clamping (DCC) has an impact on neonatal hypoglycemia induced by antenatal late preterm BMZ administration.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study (January 2019-May 2019) of pregnancies undergoing delivery at 34-0/7 to 36-6/7 weeks at a single center included in two groups: DCC + BMZ and BMZ-only (no DCC). The primary outcome was the occurrence of neonatal hypoglycemia at the first hour after delivery.RESULTS: A total of 62/188, 32.98% (DCC + BMZ group) and 45/100, 45% (DCC-only group) infants presented with hypoglycemia at 1-h after birth (adjusted p = .06; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-1.01). When stratified according to gestational age at delivery, DCC was associated with a 46% reduction in the occurrence of neonatal hypoglycemia among those born at 35-0/7 to 35-6/7 weeks (adjusted p = .033; OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.88) and 35% reduction among those born at 36-0/7 to 36-67 weeks (adjusted p = .046; OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.97).CONCLUSION: In our cohort, delayed cord clamping in infants receiving late preterm BMZ born between 35-0/7 and 36-6/7 weeks' gestation protects from early neonatal hypoglycemia.PMID:33043779 | DOI:10.1080/14767058.2020.1832074…
    12 October 2020 12:00 – Laura Hitchings
  • Effect of Umbilical Cord Milking vs Delayed Cord Clamping on Venous Hematocrit at 48 Hours in Late Preterm and Term Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Indian Pediatr. 2020 Dec 15;57(12):1119-1123. Epub 2020 Sep 16.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of intact umbilical cord milking (MUC) and delayed cord clamping (DCC) on venous hematocrit at 48 (±6) hours in late preterm and term neonates (350/7- 426/7 wk).STUDY DESIGN: Randomized trial.SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All late preterm and term neonates (350/7 - 426/7 wk) neonates born in the labor room and maternity operation theatre of tertiary care unit were included.INTERVENTION: We randomly allocated enrolled neonates to MUC group (cord milked four times towards the baby while being attached to the placenta; n=72) or DCC group (cord clamped after 60 seconds; n=72).OUTCOME: Primary outcome was venous hematocrit at 48 (±6) hours of life. Additional outcomes were venous hematocrit at 48 (±6) hours in newborns delivered through lower segment caesarean section (LSCS), incidence of polycythemia requiring partial exchange transfusion, incidence of hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, and venous hematocrit and serum ferritin levels at 6 (±1) weeks of age.RESULTS: The mean (SD) hematocrit at 48 (±6) hours in the MUC group was higher than in DCC group [57.7 (4.3) vs. 55.9 (4.4); P=0.002]. Venous hematocrit at 6 (±1) weeks was higher in MUC than in DCC group [mean (SD), 37.7 (4.3) vs. 36 (3.4); mean difference 1.75 (95% CI 0.53 to 2.9); P=0.005]. Other parameters were similar in the two groups.CONCLUSION: MUC leads to a higher venous hematocrit at 48 (±6) hours in late preterm and term neonates when compared with DCC.PMID:33034301…
    9 October 2020 12:00 – Mukul Kumar Mangla
  • Normal childbirth: physiologic labor support and medical procedures. Guidelines of the French National Authority for Health (HAS) with the collaboration of the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF) and the French College of Midwives (CNSF) -- Text of the Guidelines (short text)

    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol. 2020 Dec;48(12):873-882. doi: 10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.013. Epub 2020 Oct 1.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: The objective of these guidelines is to define for women at low obstetric risk modalities that respect the physiology of delivery and guarantee the quality and safety of maternal and newborn care.METHODS: These guidelines were made by a consensus of experts based on an analysis of the scientific literature and the French and international recommendations available on the subject.RESULTS: It is recommended to conduct a complete initial examination of the woman in labor at admission (consensus agreement). The labor will be monitored using a partogram that is a useful traceability tool (consensus agreement). A transvaginal examination may be offered every two to four hours during the first stage of labor and every hour during the second stage of labor or before if the patient requests it, or in case of a warning sign. It is recommended that if anesthesia is required, epidural or spinal anesthesia should be used to prevent bronchial inhalation (grade A). The consumption of clear fluids is permitted throughout labor in patients with a low risk of general anesthesia (grade B). It is recommended to carry out a "low dose" epidural analgesia that respects the experience of delivery (grade A). It is recommended to maintain the epidural analgesia through a woman's self-administration pump (grade A). It is recommended to give the woman the choice of continuous (by cardiotocography) or discontinuous (by cardiotocography or intermittent auscultation) monitoring if the conditions of maternity organization and the permanent availability of staff allow it and, after having informed the woman of the benefits and risks of each technique (consensus agreement). In the active phase of the first stage of labor, the dilation rate is considered abnormal if it is less than 1cm/4h between 5 and 7cm or less than 1cm/2h above 7cm (level of Evidence 2). It is then recommended to propose an amniotomy if the membranes are intact or an oxytocin administration if the membranes are already ruptured, and the uterine contractions considered insufficient (consensus agreement). It is recommended not to start expulsive efforts as soon as complete dilation is identified, but to let the presentation of the fetus drop (grade A). It is recommended to inform the gynecologist-obstetrician in case of nonprogression of the fetus after two hours of complete dilation with sufficient uterine dynamics (consensus agreement). It is recommended not to use abdominal expression (grade B). It is recommended to carry out preventive administration of oxytocin at 5 or 10 IU to prevent PPH after vaginal delivery (grade A). In the case of placental retention, it is recommended to perform a manual removal of the placenta (grade A). In the absence of bleeding, it should be performed 30minutes but not more than 60minutes after delivery (consensus agreement). It is recommended to assess at birth the breathing or screaming, and tone of the newborn to quickly determine if resuscitation is required (consensus agreement). If the parameters are satisfactory (breathing present, screaming frankly, and normal tonicity), it is recommended to propose to the mother that she immediately place the newborn skin-to-skin with her mother if she wishes, with a monitoring protocol (grade B). Delayed cord clamping is recommended beyond the first 30seconds in neonates, not requiring resuscitation (grade C). It is recommended that the first oral dose (2mg) of vitamin K (consensus agreement) be given systematically within two hours of birth.CONCLUSION: These guidelines allow women at low obstetric risk to benefit from a better quality of care and optimal safety conditions while respecting the physiology of delivery.PMID:33011381 | DOI:10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.013…
    4 October 2020 12:00 – K Petitprez
  • Normal childbirth: physiologic labor support and medical procedures. Guidelines of the French National Authority for Health (HAS) with the collaboration of the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF) and the French College of Midwives (CNSF) - Newborn care in the delivery room

    Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol. 2020 Dec;48(12):944-952. doi: 10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.019. Epub 2020 Oct 1.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this literature review is to make recommendations regarding the first steps and care provided to the healthy newborn.METHODS: Consultation of the Medline database, and of national and international guidelines.RESULTS: The initial assessment of the newborn should quickly determine whether resuscitation is necessary or not. Any anomaly requires the help of the pediatrician (Consensus agreement). For a newborn with no cardiorespiratory adaptation, delayed cord clamping may be considered more as a physiological modality of delivery, which may help prevent iron deficiency in the first months of life, without deleterious effects for the child or his/her mother, apart from a slightly increased risk of neonatal jaundice (gradeC). In order to avoid separating a woman and her child, it is recommended to postpone routine postnatal procedures, to allow for skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn, if she wishes, according to a defined/specified surveillance protocol (grade B). Breastfeeding should be encouraged, and supported, especially the first time (Consensus agreement). In the absence of suggestive clinical signs, aspiration of the upper airways and systematic verification of the permeability of posterior nasal apertures and of the esophagus are not recommended (Consensus agreement). The prevention of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn by the oral administration of vitamin K1 to all healthy term babies begins in the delivery room, preferably in the presence of the parents and after having obtained their consent (Consensus agreement).CONCLUSION: Regarding the birth of a healthy newborn, it is strongly advised to avoid unnecessary technical actions and to favor the mother-child relationship in a safe environment.PMID:33011378 | DOI:10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.019…
    4 October 2020 12:00 – M Nadjafizadeh
  • Effect of Delayed Cord Clamping on Iron Stores in Infancy

    Indian Pediatr. 2020 Sep 15;57(9):791-792.NO ABSTRACTPMID:32999105
    1 October 2020 12:00 – Siddarth Ramji
  • Coverage of the WHO's four essential elements of newborn care and their association with neonatal survival in southern Nepal

    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Sep 16;20(1):540. doi: 10.1186/s12884-020-03239-6.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Despite recent improvements in child survival, neonatal mortality continues to decline at a slower rate and now represents 47% of under-five deaths globally. The World Health Organization developed core indicators to better monitor the quality of maternal and newborn health services. One such indicator for newborn health is "the proportion of newborns who received all four elements of essential care". The four elements are immediate and thorough drying, skin to skin contact, delayed cord clamping, and early initiation of breastfeeding. Although there is existing evidence demonstrating an association with decreased neonatal mortality for each element individually, the cumulative impact has not yet been examined.METHODS: This analysis uses data from a randomized trial to examine the impact of sunflower versus mustard seed oil massage on neonatal mortality and morbidity in the Sarlahi district in Southern Nepal from 2010 to 2017. The proportion of newborn infants receiving an intervention was the exposure and neonatal mortality was the outcome in this analysis. Neonatal mortality was defined as a death between three hours and less than 28 days of age. Associations between neonatal mortality and the essential elements were estimated by Cox proportion hazards models. The hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were reported.RESULTS: 28,121 mother-infant pairs and 753 neonatal deaths were included. The percent receiving the individual elements ranged from 19.5% (skin to skin contact) to 68.2% (delayed cord clamping). The majority of infants received one or two of the elements of essential care, with less than 1% receiving all four. Skin to skin contact and early initiation of breastfeeding were associated with lower risk of neonatal mortality (aHR = 0.64 [0.51, 0.81] and aHR = 0.72 [0.60, 0.87], respectively). The risk of mortality declined as the number of elements received increased; receipt of one element compared to zero was associated with a nearly 50% reduction in risk of mortality and receipt of all four elements resulted in a 72% decrease in risk of mortality.CONCLUSIONS: The receipt of one or more of the four essential elements of newborn care was associated with improved neonatal survival. The more elements of care received, the more survival improved.PMID:32938433 | PMC:PMC7493414 | DOI:10.1186/s12884-020-03239-6…
    17 September 2020 12:00 – Emily Bryce
  • Etomidate reduces excitability of the neurons and suppresses the function of nAChR ventral horn in the spinal cord of neonatal rats

    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2020 May 30;40(5):676-682. doi: 10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.05.10.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of etomidate on electrophysiological properties and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of ventral horn neurons in the spinal cord.METHODS: The spinal cord containing lumbosacral enlargement was isolated from 19 neonatal SD rats aged 7-12 days. The spinal cord were sliced and digested with papain (0.18 g/30 mL artificial cerebrospinal fluid) and incubated for 40 min. At the ventral horn, acute mechanical separation of neurons was performed with fire-polished Pasteur pipettes, and perforated patch-clamp recordings combined with pharmacological methods were employed on the adherent healthy neurons. In current-clamp mode, the spontaneous action potential (AP) of the ventral horn neurons in the spinal cord was recorded. The effects of pretreatment with different concentrations of etomidate on AP recorded in the ventral horn neurons were examined. In the voltage-clamp mode, nicotine was applied to induce inward currents in the ventral horn neurons, and the effect of pretreatment with etomidate on the inward currents induced by nicotine were examined with different etomidate concentrations, different holding potentials and different use time.RESULTS: The isolated ventral horn neurons were in good condition with large diverse somata and intact processes. The isolated spinal ventral horn neurons (n=21) had spontaneous action potentials, and were continuously perfused for 2 min with 0.3, 3.0 and 30.0 μmol/L etomidate. Compared with those before administration, the AP amplitude, spike potential amplitude and overshoot were concentration-dependently suppressed (P &lt; 0.01), and spontaneous discharge frequency was obviously reduced (P &lt; 0.01, n=12). The APs of the other 9 neurons were completely abolished by etomidate at 3.0 or 30 μmol/L. At the same holding potential (VH=-70 mV), pretreatment with 0.3, 3.0 or 30.0 μmol/L etomidate for 2 min concentration-dependently suppressed the current amplitude induced by 0.4 mmol/L nicotine (P &lt; 0.01, n=7). At the holding potentials of - 30, - 50, and - 70 mV, pretreatment with 30.0 μmol/L etomidate for 2 min voltage-dependently suppressed the current amplitude induced by 0.4 mmol/L nicotine (P &lt; 0.01, n=6 for each holding potential). During the 6 min of 30.0 μmol/L etomidate pretreatment, the clamped cells were exposed to 0.4 mmol/L nicotine for 4 times at 0, 2, 4, and 6 min (each exposure time was 2 s), and the nicotinic current amplitude decreased gradually as the number of exposures increased. But at the same concentration, two nicotine exposures (one at the beginning and the other at the end of the 6 min pretreatment) resulted in a significantly lower inhibition rate compared with 4 nicotine exposures (P &lt; 0.01, n=6).CONCLUSIONS: etomidate reduces the excitability of the spinal ventral neurons in a concentration-dependent manner and suppresses the function of nAChR in a concentration-, voltage-, and use-dependent manner.PMID:32897202 | PMC:PMC7277324 | DOI:10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.05.10…
    8 September 2020 12:00 – Suyue Zhu
  • Achondroplasia Foramen Magnum Score: screening infants for stenosis

    Arch Dis Child. 2021 Feb;106(2):180-184. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319625. Epub 2020 Sep 3.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is associated with foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) and significant risk of morbidity and sudden death in infants. A sensitive and reliable method of detecting infants who require decompressive surgery is required. This study aims to describe the incidence and severity of FMS in an unselected, sequential series of infants using a novel MRI score and retrospectively correlate severity with clinical examination and cardiorespiratory sleep (CRS) studies.METHODS: The Achondroplasia Foramen Magnum Score (AFMS) was developed and scores were retrospectively correlated with clinical and CRS data over a 3-year period.RESULTS: Of 36 infants (M:F, 18:18), 2 (5.6%) did not have FMS (AFMS0); 13 (36.1%) had FMS with preservation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces (AFMS1); 3 (8.3%) had FMS with loss of the CSF space but no spinal cord distortion (AFMS2); 13 (36.1%) had FMS with flattening of the cervical cord without signal change (AFMS3); and 5 (13.9%) had FMS resulting in cervical cord signal change (AFMS4). Mean Total Apnea and Hypopnea Index (TAHI) for AFMS0-4 was 3.4, 6.41, 2.97, 10.5 and 25.8, respectively. Severe TAHI had a specificity of 89% but only a 59% sensitivity for AFMS3-4. Neurological examination was normal in 34/36 (94%) patients. Overall, 9/36 (25%) infants required neurosurgery with minimal surgical complications.CONCLUSIONS: Clinical examination and CRS have a low sensitivity for predicting the effects of foramen stenosis on the spinal cord. Routine screening with MRI using AFMS can aid in detecting early spinal cord changes and has the potential to reduce infant morbidity and mortality.PMID:32883660 | DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2020-319625…
    5 September 2020 12:00 – Moira S Cheung
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation of Asystolic Newborn Lambs Prior to Umbilical Cord Clamping; the Timing of Cord Clamping Matters!

    Front Physiol. 2020 Jul 30;11:902. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00902. eCollection 2020.ABSTRACTBackground: Current guidelines recommend immediate umbilical cord clamping (UCC) for newborns requiring chest compressions (CCs). Physiological-based cord clamping (PBCC), defined as delaying UCC until after lung aeration, has advantages over immediate UCC in mildly asphyxiated newborns, but its efficacy in asystolic newborns requiring CC is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiovascular response to CCs given prior to or after UCC in asystolic near-term lambs. Methods: Umbilical, carotid, pulmonary, and femoral arterial flows and pressures as well as systemic and cerebral oxygenation were measured in near-term sheep fetuses [139 ± 2 (SD) days gestation]. Fetal asphyxia was induced until asystole ensued, whereupon lambs received ventilation and CC before (PBCC; n = 16) or after (n = 12) UCC. Epinephrine was administered 1 min after ventilation onset and in 3-min intervals thereafter. The PBCC group was further separated into UCC at either 1 min (PBCC1, n = 8) or 10 min (PBCC10, n = 8) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Lambs were maintained for a further 30 min after ROSC. Results: The duration of CCs received and number of epinephrine doses required to obtain ROSC were similar between groups. After ROSC, we found no physiological benefits if UCC was delayed for 1 min compared to immediate cord clamping (ICC). However, if UCC was delayed for 10 min after ROSC, we found significant reductions in post-asphyxial rebound hypertension, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral oxygenation. The prevention of the post-asphyxial rebound hypertension in the PBCC10 group occurred due to the contribution of the placental circulation to a low peripheral resistance. As a result, left and right ventricular outputs continued to perfuse the placenta and were evidenced by reduced mean pulmonary blood flow, persistence of right-to-left shunting across the ductus arteriosus, and persistence of umbilical arterial and venous blood flows. Conclusion: It is possible to obtain ROSC after CC while the umbilical cord remains intact. There were no adverse effects of PBCC compared to ICC; however, the physiological changes observed after ROSC in the ICC and early PBCC groups may result in additional cerebral injury. Prolonging UCC after ROSC may provide significant physiological benefits that may reduce the risk of harm to the cerebral circulation.PMID:32848852 | PMC:PMC7406709 | DOI:10.3389/fphys.2020.00902…
    28 August 2020 12:00 – Graeme R Polglase
  • Effects of cord milking in late preterm infants and full-term infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Birth. 2020 Sep;47(3):259-269. doi: 10.1111/birt.12500. Epub 2020 Aug 19.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Umbilical cord milking (UCM) consists of performing several milkings of the cord from the placenta to the newborn. The objective was to evaluate the effects of UCM on newborns ≥34 weeks' gestation.METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials, and the database for randomized clinical trials (RCT), with no time or language restrictions, and for articles that compared UCM with other strategies. The main results were initial hemoglobin and hemoglobin after 6 weeks. The data were collected by two reviewers and the quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Manual methodology.RESULTS: The sample included 1845 newborns in 10 RCTs. The use of UCM in ≥34 weeks' gestation newborns was not related to initial hemoglobin levels (pooled weighted mean difference: (PWMD = 0.40 g/L [-0.16 to 0.95]) or after 6 weeks (PWMD = 0.07 g/L [-0.29 to 0.27]). A reduction in hemoglobin levels was also observed at 6 weeks when the control group had undergone late clamping (PWDM = 0.16g/L [-0.26 to -0.06]).CONCLUSIONS: UCM produced no differences in hematologic variables for newborns with ≥34 weeks of gestation relative to controls. However, a slight decrease in hemoglobin levels is observed at 6 weeks when the control group is made up of newborns with late clamping.PMID:32815178 | DOI:10.1111/birt.12500…
    21 August 2020 12:00 – Inmaculada Ortiz-Esquinas
  • Prevalence and risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia among newborns from a low-risk birth setting using delayed cord clamping in Japan

    Jpn J Nurs Sci. 2021 Jan;18(1):e12372. doi: 10.1111/jjns.12372. Epub 2020 Aug 16.ABSTRACTAIM: Neonatal jaundice is a common problem among infants. Among the several risk factors are East Asian race and delayed cord clamping. Birth centers manage low-risk term deliveries using physiological management, which may include delayed cord clamping. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of hyperbilirubinemia, a pathological process of jaundice, and its risk factors among neonates born at a Japanese birth center.METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from March 2006 to October 2014 from healthy mothers and neonates at a birth center in a metropolitan area of Japan. Demographic data and background factors of hyperbilirubinemia, including blood and transcutaneous values of jaundice, were collected and statistically analyzed.RESULTS: Of the 1,211 neonates analyzed, 4.7% exceeded the standard transcutaneous bilirubin value, and 1.8% needed phototherapy. Multiple logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) was used to identify the risk factors of hyperbilirubinemia, which were found to be cephalohematoma (OR = 30.18, 95% CI 5.63-161.69), delay of meconium elimination (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.28-5.51), previous history of phototherapy of siblings (OR = 10.28, 95% CI 3.53-29.92), and primiparity (OR = 4.55, 95% CI 2.59-8.02).CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk Japanese neonates delivered at a birth center expected to practice delayed cord clamping, the rate of neonates requiring phototherapy was not high compared to previous studies, and the identified risk factors of hyperbilirubinemia were related to bilirubin metabolism.PMID:32803859 | DOI:10.1111/jjns.12372…
    18 August 2020 12:00 – Eriko Shinohara
  • Care recommendations for parturient and postpartum women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

    Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2020;28:e3359. doi: 10.1590/1518-8345.4596.3359. Epub 2020 Aug 10.ABSTRACTObjective to map the current knowledge on recommendations for labor, childbirth, and newborn (NB) care in the context of the novel coronavirus. Method scoping review of papers identified in databases, repositories, and reference lists of papers included in the study. Two researchers independently read the papers' full texts, extracted and analyzed data, and synthesized content. Results 19 papers were included, the content of which was synthesized and organized into two conceptual categories: 1) Recommendations concerning childbirth with three subcategories - Indications to anticipate delivery, Route of delivery, and Preparation of the staff and birth room, and 2) Recommendations concerning postpartum care with four categories - Breastfeeding, NB care, Hospital discharge, and Care provided to NB at home. Conclusion prevent the transmission of the virus in the pregnancy-postpartum cycle, assess whether there is a need to interrupt pregnancies, decrease the circulation of people, avoid skin-to-skin contact and water births, prefer epidural over general anesthesia, keep mothers who tested positive or are symptomatic isolated from NB, and encourage breastfeeding. Future studies are needed to address directed pushing, instrumental delivery, delayed umbilical cord clamping, and bathing NB immediately after birth.PMID:32785566 | PMC:PMC7417133 | DOI:10.1590/1518-8345.4596.3359…
    14 August 2020 12:00 – Victor Hugo Alves Mascarenhas
  • Placental transfusion and short-term outcomes among extremely preterm infants

    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2021 Jan;106(1):62-68. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-318710. Epub 2020 Jul 30.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To compare short-term outcomes after placental transfusion (delayed cord clamping (DCC) or umbilical cord milking (UCM)) versus immediate cord clamping among extremely preterm infants.DESIGN: Retrospective study.SETTING: The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network registry.PATIENTS: Infants born <29 weeks' gestation in 2016 or 2017 without congenital anomalies who received active treatment after delivery.INTERVENTION/EXPOSURE: DCC or UCM.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes: (1) composite of mortality or major morbidity by 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA); (2) mortality by 36 weeks PMA and (3) composite of major morbidities by 36 weeks' PMA. Secondary composite outcomes: (1) any grade intraventricular haemorrhage or mortality by 36 weeks' PMA and (2) hypotension treatment in the first 24 postnatal hours or mortality in the first 12 postnatal hours. Outcomes were assessed using multivariable regression, adjusting for mortality risk factors identified a priori, significant confounders and centre as a random effect.RESULTS: Among 3116 infants, 40% were exposed to placental transfusion, which was not associated with the primary composite outcome of mortality or major morbidity by 36 weeks' PMA (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.26, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.66). However, exposure was associated with decreased mortality by 36 weeks' PMA (aOR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.92) and decreased hypotension treatment in first 24 postnatal hours (aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.82).CONCLUSION: In this extremely preterm infant cohort, exposure to placental transfusion was not associated with the composite outcome of mortality or major morbidity, though there was a reduction in mortality by 36 weeks' PMA.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00063063.PMID:32732380 | PMC:PMC7736256 | DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2019-318710…
    1 August 2020 12:00 – Neha Kumbhat
  • Influence of delayed umbilical cord clamping on pain during suture of perineal tears: A randomised controlled study

    J Clin Nurs. 2020 Nov;29(21-22):3977-3985. doi: 10.1111/jocn.15421. Epub 2020 Sep 8.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether the delayed umbilical cord clamping can influence the pain during suturing perineal tears.DESIGN: This randomised controlled study applied the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement.METHODS: The sample comprised 288 pregnant women who gave birth through vaginal delivery in our hospital from November 2019 to December 2019. They were randomly divided into 2 groups-early umbilical cord clamping (n = 147) and delayed umbilical cord clamping (n = 141)-without severe pregnancy complications. There was no intrauterine infection, neonatal asphyxia or premature birth in the 288 newborns. The pain scores of the Numerical Rating Scale, Visual Analogue Scale, Verbal Rating Scale and Faces Pain Scale-Revised were used as indicators to evaluate the mothers' pain. The Mann-Whitney U test was used, and the statistical significance was set to p < .05.RESULT: All indicators suggest that perineal suture pain of delayed umbilical cord clamping was lower than that of the control group. For the experience group, the perception of pain for the mothers who received analgesia was less than that for those who did not. For the control group, the Verbal Rating Scale suggests a statistical difference in suturing pain between acceptable and unacceptable labour analgesia. The degree of cooperation of the experience group was higher than that of the control group, but labour analgesia did not affect cooperation degree in both groups.CONCLUSION: Delayed umbilical cord clamping can alleviate maternal pain when suturing perineal tears and improve the delivery experience. Labour analgesia can enhance the pain relief effect. Trial registration was performed on (ChiCTR1900026797).RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: As a part of perinatal nursing, delayed umbilical cord clamping can help alleviate the pain of perineal suture and improve the experience of parturient. The method is simple and can be used as a routine nursing operation.PMID:32717112 | DOI:10.1111/jocn.15421…
    28 July 2020 12:00 – Yue Li
  • Delayed vs Immediate Cord Clamping Changes Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate Patterns in the First Minutes after Birth

    J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;227:149-156.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.07.045. Epub 2020 Jul 22.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To build arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) percentiles for the first 10 minutes after birth in term infants born after an uneventful gestation, vaginal delivery, and delayed cord clamping (DCC) for ≥60 seconds, and to compare our results with previous ones constructed after immediate cord clamping.STUDY DESIGN: Preductal SpO2, HR, and timing of DCC immediately after complete fetal body expulsion were recorded. The pulse-oximeter was adjusted in the right wrist/hand and set at maximal intensity and measurements performed every 2 seconds.RESULTS: A total of 282 term newborn infants were included. The definitive data set comprised of 70 257 SpO2 and 79 746 HR measurements. Median and IQR of SpO2 (%) at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after birth were 77 (68-85), 94 (90-96), and 96 (93-98), respectively. HR (beats per minute) median and IQR at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after birth were 148 (84-170), 155 (143-167), and 151 (142-161), respectively. We found significantly higher SpO2 for the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles compared with the previous reference ranges for the first 5 minutes and HR for the first 1-2 minutes after birth.CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneously breathing term newborn infants born by vaginal delivery who underwent DCC ≥60 seconds achieved higher SpO2 and HR in the first 5 minutes after birth compared with term neonates born under the same conditions but with immediate cord clamping. Further studies in neonates undergoing cesarean delivery are under way.PMID:32710909 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.07.045…
    26 July 2020 12:00 – Celia Padilla-Sánchez
  • The Effects of Delayed Cord Clamping on 12-Month Brain Myelin Content and Neurodevelopment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Am J Perinatol. 2020 Jul 21. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1714258. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if delayed cord clamping (DCC) affected brain myelin water volume fraction (VFm) and neurodevelopment in term infants.STUDY DESIGN: This was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial of healthy pregnant women with term singleton fetuses randomized at birth to either immediate cord clamping (ICC) (≤ 20 seconds) or DCC (≥ 5 minutes). Follow-up at 12 months of age consisted of blood work for serum iron indices and lead levels, a nonsedated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed within the week by neurodevelopmental testing.RESULTS: At birth, 73 women were randomized into one of two groups: ICC (the usual practice) or DCC (the intervention). At 12 months, among 58 active participants, 41 (80%) had usable MRIs. There were no differences between the two groups on maternal or infant demographic variables. At 12 months, infants who had DCC had increased white matter brain growth in regions localized within the right and left internal capsules, the right parietal, occipital, and prefrontal cortex. Gender exerted no difference on any variables. Developmental testing (Mullen Scales of Early Learning, nonverbal, and verbal composite scores) was not significantly different between the two groups.CONCLUSION: At 12 months of age, infants who received DCC had greater myelin content in important brain regions involved in motor function, visual/spatial, and sensory processing. A placental transfusion at birth appeared to increase myelin content in the early developing brain.KEY POINTS: · DCC resulted in higher hematocrits in newborn period.. · DCC appears to increase myelin at 12 months.. · Gender did not influence study outcomes..PMID:32702760 | DOI:10.1055/s-0040-1714258…
    24 July 2020 12:00 – Judith S Mercer
  • Randomized Study of Delayed Cord Clamping of 30 to 60 Seconds in the Larger Infant Born Preterm

    J Pediatr. 2020 Sep;224:153-157. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.04.058. Epub 2020 Jul 7.ABSTRACTIn a randomized study of infants born preterm (gestational age 28-34 6/7 weeks), we evaluated delayed cord clamping for 30 (n = 50) vs 60 (n = 55) seconds. The primary outcome of initial hematocrit differed by 2.8% (P = .006), being greater with 60 seconds. There were no differences in secondary outcomes and no adverse consequences between groups. These findings should serve as a stimulus to many centers that are reluctant to implement delayed cord clamping in this targeted larger premature population.PMID:32651013 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.04.058…
    12 July 2020 12:00 – Laura J Perretta
  • Protection from systemic pyruvate at resuscitation in newborn lambs with asphyxial cardiac arrest

    Physiol Rep. 2020 Jun;8(12):e14472. doi: 10.14814/phy2.14472.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Infants with hypoxic-ischemic injury often require cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Mitochondrial failure to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion injury contributes to cellular damage. Current postnatal strategies to improve outcome in hypoxic-ischemic injury need sophisticated equipment to perform servo-controlled cooling. Administration of intravenous pyruvate, an antioxidant with favorable effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics, is a simple intervention that can have a global impact. We hypothesize that the administration of pyruvate following the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) would improve cardiac function, systemic hemodynamics, and oxygen utilization in the brain in newborn lambs with cardiac arrest (CA).METHODS: Term lambs were instrumented, delivered by C-section and asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion along with clamping of the endotracheal tube until asystole; Lambs resuscitated following 5 min of CA; upon ROSC, lambs were randomized to receive pyruvate or saline infusion over 90 min and ventilated for 150 min postinfusion. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics and arterial gases monitored. We measured plasma pyruvate, tissue lactate, and ATP levels (heart and brain) in both groups.RESULTS: Time to ROSC was not different between the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, stroke volume, arterial oxygen content, and cerebral oxygen delivery were similar between the two groups. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was higher following pyruvate infusion; higher oxygen consumption in the brain was associated with lower plasma levels but higher brain ATP levels compared to the saline group.CONCLUSIONS: Pyruvate promotes energy generation accompanied by efficient oxygen utilization in the brain and may facilitate additional neuroprotection in the presence of hypoxic-ischemic injury.PMID:32596995 | PMC:PMC7322497 | DOI:10.14814/phy2.14472…
    30 June 2020 12:00 – Vasantha H S Kumar
  • Does umbilical cord milking increase the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extreme preterm neonates? A multitreatment comparison

    Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Oct;223(4):590-592. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.06.043. Epub 2020 Jun 25.NO ABSTRACTPMID:32593537 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2020.06.043…
    29 June 2020 12:00 – Luis Sanchez-Ramos
  • Efficacy of Intravenous, Endotracheal, or Nasal Adrenaline Administration During Resuscitation of Near-Term Asphyxiated Lambs

    Front Pediatr. 2020 Jun 2;8:262. doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.00262. eCollection 2020.ABSTRACTObjectives: Neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend administering intravenous (IV) adrenaline if bradycardia persists despite adequate ventilation and chest compressions (CC). Rapid IV access is challenging, but little evidence exists for other routes of administration. We compared IV, endotracheal (ET), and intranasal routes for adrenaline administration during resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn lambs. Study design: Near-term lambs (n = 22) were delivered by caesarean section. Severe asphyxia was induced by clamping the umbilical cord while delaying ET ventilation until blood flow in the carotid artery ceased. Following a 30 s sustained inflation and ventilation for 30 s, we commenced uncoordinated CC at 90/min. We randomized four groups receiving repeated treatment doses (Tds) every 3rd min of (i) IV-Adrenaline (50 μg), (ii) ET-Adrenaline (500 μg), (iii) Nasal-Adrenaline via an atomizer (500 μg), and (iv) IV-saline. If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was not achieved after three Tds by the assigned route, up to two rescue doses (Rds) of IV adrenaline were administered. Main outcome measures were achievement of ROSC and time from start of CC to ROSC, defined as heart rate >100/min, and mean carotid arterial pressure >30 mmHg. Results: In the IV-Adrenaline group, 5/6 lambs achieved ROSC after the first Td, whereas 1 lamb required two Tds before achieving ROSC. In the ET-Adrenaline group, 1/5 lambs required one Td, 1 lamb required three Tds, 2 lambs required 2 Rds, and 1 did not achieve ROSC. In the Nasal-Adrenaline group, 1/6 lambs required one Td, 2 required two Tds, whereas 3 lambs required either one (2 lambs) or two (1 lamb) Rds of adrenaline to achieve ROSC. In the IV-saline group, no lambs achieved ROSC until adrenaline Rds; 4/5 lambs required one Rd and 1 lamb required two Rds. Time to ROSC was shorter using IV-Adrenaline (2.4 ± 0.4 min) compared with ET-Adrenaline (10.3 ± 2.4 min), Nasal-Adrenaline (9.2 ± 2.2 min), and IV-saline (11.2 ± 1.2 min). Conclusion: IV adrenaline had superior efficacy compared with nasal or ET administration. Nasal administration had a similar effect as ET administration and is an easier route for early application. Nasal high-dose adrenaline administration for neonatal resuscitation merits further investigation.PMID:32582589 | PMC:PMC7282342 | DOI:10.3389/fped.2020.00262…
    26 June 2020 12:00 – Nils T Songstad
  • Care of newborns born to mothers with COVID-19 infection; a review of existing evidence

    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 Jun 23:1-13. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1777969. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBackground: The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is already wreaking havoc on families and communities' welfare. It is critical to discuss newborn care of infected mothers with COVID-19 based on the latest international guidelines and national guidelines of countries with the highest incidence of COVID-19 cases.Objective: We discuss how to care for a newborn of a suspected or infected mother with COVID-19 using existing evidence.Method: As of 16 April 2020, we reviewed articles and guidelines related to COVID-19 in the reproductive health field, mother, and newborn health. Our review yielded in 10 categories (i) the risk of diagnostic procedures in suspected mothers on fetus/infant health, (ii) the risk of intrauterine or postpartum transmission to the fetus/infant, (iii) appropriate method and delivery time in women with confirmed COVID-19, (iv) umbilical cord clamping and skin to skin contact, (v) clinical manifestations of infected infants, (vi) confirmation of infection in a suspected neonate/infant, (vii) instructions for infant's care and how to feed her/him, (viii) bathing the baby, (ix) the criteria of discharging baby from the hospital, (x) the impact of isolation on the maternal mental health.Results: Our findings showed that the possibility of intrauterine or perinatal transmission of COVID-19 is still questionable and ambiguous. However, what has been agreed upon in the existing texts and guidelines is that the close contact of mother and infant after birth can transmit the virus to the baby through droplets or micro-droplets.Conclusions: Based on our findings, it is recommended to separate the baby from the mother with confirmed (or suspected) COVID-19 infection for at least 2 weeks. Since the motivation and stable situation of mothers allow breastfeeding during the isolation, infected mothers should be taught about breast expression skills, common breast problems, the symptoms of their baby's infection, and the principles of personal hygiene to protect the infant against COVID-19 infection.PMID:32576055 | DOI:10.1080/14767058.2020.1777969…
    25 June 2020 12:00 – Shirin Shahbazi Sighaldeh
  • Early or delayed umbilical cord clamping? Experiences and perceptions of nurse-midwives and obstetricians at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania

    PLoS One. 2020 Jun 22;15(6):e0234854. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234854. eCollection 2020.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Umbilical cord clamping is a crucial step during the third stage of labour that separates the newborn from the placenta. Despite the available evidence that delayed umbilical cord clamping is more beneficial to infants, as well as the existence of 2014 WHO recommendation that the umbilical cord should be clamped between 1 and 3 minutes, its implementation is still low in many countries including Tanzania.OBJECTIVE: This study describes the experiences and perceptions of nurse-midwives`and obstetricians`about the timing of umbilical cord clamping at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania.METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study design that adopted a purposeful sampling strategy to recruit 19 participants was used. Nine semi-structured interviews with six nurse-midwives`and three obstetricians`, as well as one focus group discussion with ten nurse-midwives`were conducted. Thematic analysis guided the analysis of data.RESULTS: Three main themes generated from the data, each having 2 to 5 subthemes. 1. Experiences about the timing of umbilical cord clamping. 2. Perceptions about the umbilical cord clamping. 3. Factors influencing the practice of delayed umbilical cord clamping to improve newborn health outcomes.CONCLUSION: Although the nurse-midwives`and obstetricians`commonly practiced clamping the umbilical cord immediately after delivery, they understood that delayed cord clamping has a potential benefit of oxygenation to the newborn in the event of the need for resuscitation. To move forward with the good practice in maternal and newborn care, proper pre-service and providers training on matters underlying childbirth is essential to address the gap of knowledge. Delayed cord clamping should be practiced widely to improve the health outcomes of the newborn.PMID:32569338 | PMC:PMC7307749 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0234854…
    23 June 2020 12:00 – Dorkasi Lushindiho Mwakawanga

ALtimetric score

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2017 on anemia is spread by media

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2015 on neurodevelopment is spread by media