Latest research on cord clamping

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We will continously blog on our own and others results on cord clamping, as well as other news related to the subject, such as umbilical cord milking and resuscitation.

Latest posts from the blog

The first author, Manuela Isacson called all labor departments in Sweden twice, and asked the 95 midwives about their cord clamping practice.

Now we publish the results:

INTRODUCTION The timing of cord clamping impacts children’s short- and long- term well-being. When making clinical decisions, midwives incorporate their tacit and professional knowledge, experience and current evidence. There appears to be a lack of knowledge regarding Swedish midwives’ management of the third stage of labor and cord clamping practice. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish midwives’ clinical practice concerning umbilical cord clamping and the third stage of labor in spontaneous vaginal births.
METHODS The study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey including 13 questions. Midwives were randomly selected from 48 births units in Sweden. Two midwives from each unit were interviewed. The primary outcome was timing of umbilical cord clamping practice in full-term infants. Secondary outcomes were the management of the third stage of labor including prophylactic use of synthetic oxytocin, the timing of cord clamping in preterm infants, controlled cord traction, uterine massage, and cord milking.
RESULTS Altogether, 95 midwives were interviewed. In full-term infants, all midwives preferred late cord clamping. Considerable heterogeneity was seen regarding the practices of synthetic oxytocin administration postpartum, controlled cord traction, uterine massage or cord milking, and cord clamping in preterm infants.
CONCLUSIONS Midwives in Sweden modify recommendations regarding delayed cord clamping in a way they might perceive as more natural and practical in their daily, clinical work. The study revealed a reluctance toward the administration of prophylactic oxytocin due to fear that the drug could pass to the infant. An overall large variation of the management of the third stage of labor was seen.
Read more:
Läs hela inlägget »
4 August 2021
New uptodate review on cord clamping
11 February 2017
In memory of Hans Rosling:


Latest posts on NEW research

Two of the persons involved in the development of Lifestart trolley ( has published a review in Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology.
"Abstract: The rationale for keeping the mother and her newborn together even when neonatal resuscitation is required is presented. The development of a customised mobile resuscitation trolley is detailed explaining how the resuscitation team can be provided with all the facilities of a standard resuscitation trolley to resuscitate the neonate at the mother’s side with an intact cord. Alternative low tech solutions which may be appropriate in low resource setting and with a low risk population are also described."

Läs hela inlägget »
9 July 2015
Delayed clamping vs. milking in preterm infants
12 June 2015
Review on delivery room management of newly born infants
23 May 2015
Cardiac changes during delayed cord clamping
3 May 2015
Delayed cord clamping with and without cord stripping: a prospective randomized trial of preterm neo
12 April 2015
Delayed cord clamping in South African neonates with expected low birthweight


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  • Management of Placental Transfusion to Neonates After Delivery

    Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Apr 1;139(4):693. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004740.NO ABSTRACTPMID:35594126 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004740…
    20 May 2022 12:00 – Henry Michael Lerner
  • Sustaining immediate newborn care processes (delayed cord clamping and early breastfeeding initiation) in the delivery room: a quality improvement study

    BMJ Open Qual. 2022 May;11(Suppl 1):e001705. doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001705.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Immediate newborn care processes like delayed cord clamping (DCC) and early breastfeeding initiation (EBFI) in the delivery room have several benefits including survival. Despite the evidence, the practices have not been widely adopted. We used a point-of-care quality improvement (QI) to implement and sustain these two immediate newborn care processes in our delivery room over a period of 2 years through a series of plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles.METHODS: All neonates above 30 weeks of gestation irrespective of the need for resuscitation except Rh-isoimmunisation were eligible for DCC. Neonates >35 weeks not requiring respiratory support or resuscitation were eligible for EBFI. The root causes of gaps in the quality were analysed by fishbone analysis. The key quantitative outcome measure was the percentage of eligible deliveries in which DCC and EBFI were done. Duration of DCC was also recorded in the sustenance phase. This implementation was done through three PDSA cycles and the practices were sustained for 2 years.RESULTS: A total of 770 deliveries were part of this QI study from October 2018 to December 2020. There was a significant improvement in DCC (median) from a baseline of 25% to 96% over a 2-year period. Sensitisation, making DCC part of pre-birth checklist and recording outcomes on a dashboard daily helped to implement and sustain the processes over 2 years. As a co-process, EBFI improved (median) from a baseline of 50% to 97% without any major intervention in the system.CONCLUSIONS: Immediate newborn care processes could be sustained by making them part of pre-birth preparation and dashboard recording by a QI initiative without any additional resources.PMID:35584842 | DOI:10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001705…
    18 May 2022 12:00 – Pranavi Nagendla
  • Integrated review of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of maternity health care professionals concerning umbilical cord clamping

    Birth. 2022 May 18. doi: 10.1111/birt.12647. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Umbilical cord clamp timing has implications for newborn health, which include increased iron stores up to 6 months of age. National and International cord clamping guidelines differ as do health professionals' practices. The rationale for differences in cord clamping practice is unclear.AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Studies on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of maternity health care professionals about cord clamp timing were synthesized. Similarities and differences between professional groups and understanding of the optimal timing of cord clamp timing for term newborns were compared.METHODS: An integrative review was undertaken. PubMed, Scopus, MIDIRS, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were searched. Publication date limits were set between January 2007 and December 2020. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tools.RESULTS: Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria, as they included primary research studies that investigated maternity health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about umbilical cord clamping, and were written in English. Four main subject areas were identified: a) knowledge of optimal cord clamp timing; b) attitudes and perceptions of early vs deferred cord clamping; c) cord clamping practice; and d) rationale for cord clamping practice.CONCLUSIONS: Different attitudes and practices were identified between midwifery and medical professionals in relation to cord clamp timing together with health professional knowledge and practice gaps pertaining to optimal cord clamp timing. Contemporary evidence should inform guidelines for clinical practice and be embedded into maternity health professional curricula and professional development programs.PMID:35582849 | DOI:10.1111/birt.12647…
    18 May 2022 12:00 – Lisa Peberdy
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Infants <29 Weeks' Gestation Born in Canada Between 2009 and 2016

    J Pediatr. 2022 May 10:S0022-3476(22)00408-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.04.048. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in mortality or significant neurodevelopmental impairment (sNDI) in children born <29 weeks' gestation in association with national quality improvement initiatives.METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study included children born at 220 to 286 weeks' gestation who were admitted to Canadian NICUs between 2009 and 2016. Primary outcome was a composite rate of death or significant NDI (Bayley-III scores <70, severe cerebral palsy, blindness, or deafness needing amplification) at 18 to 24 months corrected age. To evaluate temporal changes, outcomes were compared between epoch 1: 2009-2012, and epoch 2: 2013-2016. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated for differences between the two epochs accounting for patient characteristic differences.RESULTS: Of the 4426 included children, 1895 (43%) were born in epoch 1 and 2531 (57%) in epoch 2. In epoch 2, more mothers received magnesium sulphate (56% vs 28%), antibiotics (69% vs 65%), and delayed cord clamping (37% vs 31%); and fewer infants had SNAP-2 scores >20 (31% vs 35%) and late onset sepsis (23% vs 27%). Death or significant NDI occurred in 30% of children in epoch 2 vs 32% of children in epoch 1 (AOR 0.86, 95%CI 0.75-0.99). In epoch 2 vs epoch 1, there were reductions in the need for hearing aids or cochlear implants (1.4% vs. 2.6% AOR 0.50, 95%CI 0.31-0.82) and in blindness (0.6% vs.1.4%; AOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.18-0.80).CONCLUSION: Among preterm infants born <29 weeks' gestation, composite rates of death or significant NDI and rates of visual and hearing impairment were significantly lower in 2013-2016 vs 2009-2012.PMID:35561804 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.04.048…
    13 May 2022 12:00 – M Florencia Ricci
  • Assessing Implementation of Helping Babies Breathe Program Through Observing Immediate Care of Neonates at Time of Delivery

    Front Pediatr. 2022 Apr 25;10:864431. doi: 10.3389/fped.2022.864431. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Training in neonatal resuscitation has been shown to reduce deaths related to intrapartum asphyxia. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) is a simulation-based program focusing on training healthcare providers (HCPs) in immediate neonatal care including stimulation, initiating bag mask ventilation (BMV) in the absence of breathing by 1 min of life, and delayed (30-60 s after birth) umbilical cord clamping (DCC). Data on implementation of HBB posttraining are limited.OBJECTIVE: To determine time from birth to spontaneous breathing, cord clamping, and initiation of BMV in a setting where the majority of HCPs are HBB trained.METHODS: Two research nurses observed deliveries conducted in two referral hospitals. Timing included the onset of breathing, cord clamping, and initiation of BMV. Deliveries were grouped according to the mode of delivery.RESULTS: In total, 496 neonates were observed; 410 (82.7%) neonates cried or had spontaneous breathing (median time 17 s) soon after birth, 25/86 (29%) of neonates not breathing responded to stimulation, 61 (12.3%) neonates required BMV, and 2 (0.4%) neonates required chest compression and/or adrenalin. Neonates delivered by cesarean section (CS) took longer to initiate first breath than those delivered vaginally (median time 19 vs. 14 s; p = 0.009). Complete data were available in 58/61 (95%) neonates receiving BMV, which was initiated in 54/58 (93%) cases within 60 s of life (the "Golden Minute"). Median time to cord clamping was 74 s, with 414 (83.5%) and 313 (63.0%) having cord clamped at ≥ 30 and ≥ 60 s, respectively. Factors associated with BMV were CS delivery [odds ratio (OR) 29.9; 95% CI 3.37-229], low birth weight (LBW) (birthweight < 2,500 g) (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.93-5.91), and 1 min Apgar score < 7 (OR 149; 95% CI 49.3-5,021). DCC (≥ 60 s) was less likely following CS delivery (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.99) and being LBW (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.24-0.77).CONCLUSION: Approximately 83% of neonates initiated spontaneous breathing soon after birth and 29% of neonates not breathing responded to physical stimulation. BMV was initiated within the Golden Minute in most neonates, but under two-thirds had DCC (≥60 s). HBB implementation followed guidelines, suggesting that knowledge and skills taught from HBB are retained and applied by HCP.PMID:35547538 | PMC:PMC9083269 | DOI:10.3389/fped.2022.864431…
    13 May 2022 12:00 – Martha Mayer
  • Hemodynamic parameters after Delayed Cord Clamping (DCC) in term neonates: a prospective observational study

    BMC Pediatr. 2022 May 6;22(1):256. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03303-4.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is practiced worldwide, as standard care in both term and preterm babies. Our aim was to determine the hemodynamic effects of DCC on transitional circulation.MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital, at Pune, India, from May 2018 to October 2019.Term neonates born during the study period were included. The primary outcome variables of the study were right ventricular output (RVO), left ventricular output (LVO), superior vena cava (SVC) flow (ml/kg/min) and heart rate(HR) at 12 ± 6 and 48 ± 6 h of life measured by point of care functional echocardiography. Inter-observer and intra-observer variability was calculated for these parameters.RESULTS: Out of a total of 2744 deliveries during the study period, 620 babies were included. Mean gestational age of the enrolled babies was 38.96 ± 1.08 weeks and mean birth weight was 2.9 ± 0.39 kg. Mean heart rate of babies recorded at 12 ± 6 h of life was 127 beats per minute (bpm) whereas it was 128 bpm at 48 ± 6 h of life. RVO {mean (SD)} was 209.55(44.89) and 205.85(46.35) ml/kg/min, LVO {mean (SD)} was 133.68(31.15) and 134.78(29.84) ml/kg/min whereas SVC flow {mean (SD)} was 106.85(26.21) and 109.29(25.11) ml/kg/min at 12 ± 6 and 48 ± 6 h of life respectively. There was good intra-observer agreement in all the variables. SGA babies had a significantly higher heart rate at 12 ± 6 h of life as compared to AGA babies, although this difference in heart rate could not be appreciated at 48 ± 6 h of life. However SGA babies had a higher LVO, RVO and SVC flow than AGA babies at both the time points of observation.CONCLUSION: After DCC there is less fluctuation in the hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, cardiac output) at the two time points of observation.. As compared to AGA babies, SGA babies had a significantly higher baseline heart rate, LVO, RVO and SVC flow. LVO of SGA babies after delayed cord clamping is found to be significantly lower than LVO seen in other studies, favoring the cardio-stabilizing effect of DCC.BRIEF RATIONALE: This is the first study with a large sample size evaluating the hemodynamic effects of DCC in term neonates by functional echocardiography. The normative data of heart rate and cardiac output of term, stable babies with small for gestational age(SGA) as a special subgroup undergoing DCC requires further evaluation.PMID:35524194 | PMC:PMC9074198 | DOI:10.1186/s12887-022-03303-4…
    6 May 2022 12:00 – Bhvya Gupta
  • Delayed Cord Clamping for 45 seconds in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Impact on Hemoglobin at Birth and Close to Discharge

    Am J Perinatol. 2022 May 6. doi: 10.1055/a-1845-1816. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of delayed cord clamping (DCC) for 45 seconds on hemoglobin at birth and close to discharge in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and to compare modes of delivery in infants who received DCC.STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective study, 888 VLBW infants (< 1500 gram) who survived to discharge and received immediate cord clamping (ICC) were compared with infants who received DCC. Infants who received DCC and born via Cesarean section (C-section) were compared with those born via vaginal birth.RESULTS: A total of 555 infants received ICC and 333 DCC. Only 188 out of 333 VLBW infants (56.5%) born during the DCC period received DCC. DCC was associated with higher hemoglobin at birth (15.9 g/dl vs. 14.9 g/dl, p=0.001) and close to discharge (10.7 g/dl vs 10.1 g/dl, p<0.001) and reduced need for blood transfusion (39.4% vs 54.9%, p<0.001). In DCC group, hemoglobin at birth and close to discharge was similar in infants born via C-section and vaginal birth.CONCLUSION: DCC for 45 seconds increased hemoglobin at birth and close to discharge and reduced need for blood transfusion in VLBW infants. DCC for 45 seconds was equally effective for infants born by C-section and vaginal delivery. Approximately 44% of VLBW infants did not receive DCC even after implementing DCC guidelines.PMID:35523407 | DOI:10.1055/a-1845-1816…
    6 May 2022 12:00 – Barbara Amendolia
  • Effect of Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping on Hemodynamic Instability in Preterm Neonates below 35 Weeks

    J Trop Pediatr. 2022 Apr 5;68(3):fmac035. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmac035.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Delaying umbilical cord clamping facilitates postnatal transition in neonates but evidence on its effect in reducing hemodynamic instability in preterm neonates is inconclusive.AIMS: To evaluate delayed cord clamping (DCC) in reducing the incidence of hemodynamic instability in preterm neonates below 35 weeks gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.METHODS: Neonates between 25 weeks and 34 weeks and 6 days gestation were enrolled. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored over 48 h. Hemodynamic instability was defined as persistent tachycardia and/or hypotension necessitating therapy.RESULTS: The DCC cohort included 62 neonates with an equal number in the non-DCC group. The birth weight [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] was 1332.90 ± 390.05 g and the gestational age (mean ± SD) was 31.64 ± 2.52 weeks. Hemodynamic instability was noted in 18/62 (29%) neonates in the DCC cohort and 29/62 (46.7%) in the non-DCC group; relative risk (RR) 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.99] (p = 0.023). The duration of inotrope requirement in the DCC cohort (mean ± SD) was 38.38 ± 16.99 h compared to 49.13 ± 22.90 h in the non-DCC cohort (p = 0.090). Significantly higher systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures were noted from 6 h to 48 h in the DCC cohort (p < 0.001). The severity of respiratory distress and FiO2 requirement was also less in the first 24 h. There was no difference in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, late-onset sepsis or mortality.CONCLUSION: Delaying umbilical cord clamping at birth by 60 s resulted in significantly lower hemodynamic instability in the first 48 h and higher blood pressure parameters.PMID:35512365 | DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmac035…
    5 May 2022 12:00 – Vishal Vishnu Tewari
  • Cord clamping beyond 3 minutes: Neonatal short-term outcomes and maternal postpartum hemorrhage

    Birth. 2022 May 2. doi: 10.1111/birt.12645. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Delaying cord clamping (CC) for 3-5 minutes reduces iron deficiency and improves neurodevelopment. Data on the effects of CC beyond 3 minutes in relation to short-term neonatal outcomes and maternal risk of postpartum hemorrhage are scarce.METHODS: This was a prospective observational study performed in two delivery departments. Pregnant women with vaginal deliveries were included. Time to CC, estimated postpartum blood loss, and perinatal data were recorded. Spearman's correlation analysis and comparisons between newborns clamped before and after 3 minutes were performed.RESULTS: In total, 904 dyads were included. The mean gestational age ± standard deviation was 40.1 ± 1.2 weeks. CC was performed at a median time of 6 minutes (range 0-23.5). Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes were positively correlated with time to CC (correlation coefficient .140, P < .001 and .161, < .001). There was no correlation between CC time and bilirubin level (correlation coefficient .021, P = .54). The median postpartum blood loss was 300 mL (70-2550 mL), with a negative correlation between CC time and postpartum blood loss (-0.115, P = .001). The postpartum blood loss was larger in the group clamped at ≤3 minutes (median [interquartile range] 400 mL [300-600] vs 300 mL [250-450], [P = .003]].CONCLUSIONS: Umbilical CC times beyond 3 minutes in vaginal deliveries were not associated with negative short-term outcomes in newborns and were associated with a smaller maternal postpartum blood loss. Although CC time as long as 6 minutes could be considered as safe, further research is needed to decide the optimal timing.PMID:35502141 | DOI:10.1111/birt.12645…
    3 May 2022 12:00 – Andreas Winkler
  • Hemodynamic Quality Improvement Bundle to Reduce the Use of Inotropes in Extreme Preterm Neonates

    Paediatr Drugs. 2022 May;24(3):259-267. doi: 10.1007/s40272-022-00502-5. Epub 2022 Apr 26.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of the quality improvement (QI) bundle on the rate of inotrope use and associated morbidities.METHODS: We included inborn preterm neonates born at < 29 weeks admitted to level III NICU. We implemented a QI bundle focusing on the first 72 h from birth which included delayed cord clamping, avoidance of routine echocardiography, the addition of clinical criteria to the definition of hypotension, factoring iatrogenic causes of hypotension, and standardization of respiratory management. The rate of inotropes use was compared before and after implementing the care bundle. Incidence of cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) was used as a balancing measure.RESULTS: QI bundle implementation was associated with significant reduction in overall use of inotropes (24 vs 7%, p < 0.001), dopamine (18 vs 5%, p < 0.001), and dobutamine (17 vs 4%, p < 0.001). Rate of acute brain injury decreased significantly: acute brain injury of any grade (34 vs 20%, p < 0.001) and severe brain injury (15 vs 6%, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of cPVL (0.8 vs 1.4%, p = 0.66). Associations remained significant after adjusting for confounding factors.CONCLUSIONS: A quality improvement bundled approach resulted in a reduction in inotropes use and associated brain morbidities in premature babies.PMID:35469390 | DOI:10.1007/s40272-022-00502-5…
    26 April 2022 12:00 – Sujith Kumar Reddy Gurram Venkata
  • Making the Argument for Intact Cord Resuscitation: A Case Report and Discussion

    Children (Basel). 2022 Apr 6;9(4):517. doi: 10.3390/children9040517.ABSTRACTWe use a case of intact cord resuscitation to argue for the beneficial effects of an enhanced blood volume from placental transfusion for newborns needing resuscitation. We propose that intact cord resuscitation supports the process of physiologic neonatal transition, especially for many of those newborns appearing moribund. Transfer of the residual blood in the placenta provides the neonate with valuable access to otherwise lost blood volume while changing from placental respiration to breathing air. Our hypothesis is that the enhanced blood flow from placental transfusion initiates mechanical and chemical forces that directly, and indirectly through the vagus nerve, cause vasodilatation in the lung. Pulmonary vascular resistance is thereby reduced and facilitates the important increased entry of blood into the alveolar capillaries before breathing commences. In the presented case, enhanced perfusion to the brain by way of an intact cord likely led to regained consciousness, initiation of breathing, and return of tone and reflexes minutes after birth. Paramount to our hypothesis is the importance of keeping the umbilical cord circulation intact during the first several minutes of life to accommodate physiologic neonatal transition for all newborns and especially for those most compromised infants.PMID:35455560 | PMC:PMC9031173 | DOI:10.3390/children9040517…
    23 April 2022 12:00 – Judith Mercer
  • Factors associated with umbilical cord clamping in term newborns

    Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2022 Mar 28;56:e20210423. doi: 10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2021-0423. eCollection 2022.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with umbilical cord clamping in term newborns and to compare the recording of clamping time in the medical record with what was observed.METHOD: Cross-sectional study, with 300 mothers-infants, in a university hospital. Clamping time and medical records were observed, and a structured questionnaire was applied to postpartum women for sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analysis, multivariate Poisson Regression model, and Kappa concordance test were performed.RESULTS: The percentage of late/optimal clamping observed was 53.7%. The associated factors were skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room (PR = 0.76; 0.61-0.95; p = 0.014), position of the newborn below the vaginal canal (PR = 2.6; CI95%: 1.66-4.07; p < 0.001), position of the newborn at the vaginal level (PR = 2.03; CI95%: 1.5-2.75; p < 0.001), and need for newborn resuscitation in the delivery room (PR = 1.42; CI95%; 1.16-1.73; p = 0.001). Kappa concordance level of the professionals, records compared to the observation was: nurse 0.47, obstetrician 0.59, and pediatrician 0.86.CONCLUSION: the identification of associated factors and the comparison between recording and observing the clamping time can help in the planning and implementation of improvements for adherence to good practices at birth.PMID:35348571 | DOI:10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2021-0423…
    29 March 2022 12:00 – Juliana Karine Rodrigues Strada
  • Guideline No. 424: Umbilical Cord Management in Preterm and Term Infants

    J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2022 Mar;44(3):313-322.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2022.01.007.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of deferred (delayed) cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking in singleton and twin gestations on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity.TARGET POPULATION: People who are pregnant with preterm or term singletons or twins.BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: In preterm singletons, DCC for (ideally) 60 to 120 seconds, but at least for 30 seconds, reduces infant risk of mortality and morbidity. DCC in preterm twins is associated with some benefits. In term singletons, DCC for 60 seconds improves hematological parameters. In very preterm infants, umbilical cord milking increases risk for intraventricular hemorrhage.EVIDENCE: Searches of Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2020 were undertaken using Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and key words related to deferred cord clamping and umbilical cord milking. This document represents an abstraction of the evidence rather than a methodological review.VALIDATION METHODS: The authors rated the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. See online Appendix A (Tables A1 for definitions and A2 for interpretations of strong and conditional [weak] recommendations).INTENDED USERS: Maternity and newborn care providers.PMID:35300830 | DOI:10.1016/j.jogc.2022.01.007…
    18 March 2022 11:00 – Sarah D McDonald
  • Practices and attitudes about delayed umbilical cord clamping for term infants: a descriptive survey among midwives

    J Obstet Gynaecol. 2022 Mar 7:1-8. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2022.2036964. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to assess variations in midwives' practices of cord clamping (early versus delayed) and to identify factors potentially associated with delayed clamping. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey by self-administered online questionnaire among French midwives working in delivery rooms from March to July 2018. We obtained complete responses from 350 midwives. Only 120 (34.3%) reported always or sometimes performing delayed cord clamping at one minute or more after birth. Delayed cord clamping was significantly associated with midwives' experience (adjusted OR 3.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10, 7.83 for experience >10 years), maternity unit written protocol (adjusted OR (aOR) 5.17; 95% CI 1.88, 16.00), knowledge of guidelines (aOR 3.33; 95% CI 1.98, 5.71) and neonatal care level 1 (aOR 2.95; 95% CI 1.53, 5.78).Impact StatementWhat is already know on this subject? Despite benefits and the safety of delayed cord clamping, many newborns likely had their umbilical cords clamped immediately after delivery as part of routine care or because providers were not convinced of the benefits of delayed clamping.What do the results of this study add? Most of the midwives surveyed did not systematically delay cord clamping. Individual and organisational factors were associated with adherence to guidelines regarding delayed cord clamping.What are the implications of these findings for clinical and/or further research? A protocol should be implemented in every maternity unit with information about the benefits and risks of delayed cord clamping to reduce variations in practice and improve the safety of care.PMID:35253590 | DOI:10.1080/01443615.2022.2036964…
    7 March 2022 12:00 – Anne Rousseau
  • Effect of later cord clamping on umbilical cord blood gas in term neonates of diabetic mothers: a randomized clinical trial

    BMC Pediatr. 2022 Mar 1;22(1):111. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03170-z.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of later cord clamping (LCC) on umbilical arterial blood gas in neonates of diabetic mothers.METHODS: This prospective study included a group of 160 diabetic mothers (DM) whose neonates were randomized to immediate cord clamping (ICC) (≤ 15 s after birth) or LCC (≥ 30 s after birth), and a group of 208 non-diabetic mothers (NDM) whose neonates were randomized to ICC or LCC as a reference. Cord arterial pH, base excess (BE), bicarbonate (HCO3-), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), lactate, hemoglobin, hematocrit and glucose were compared among groups.RESULTS: In neonates of DM, there was no significant difference in cord arterial pH between the ICC and LCC group. LCC of ≥ 30 s decreased umbilical arterial HCO3- and BE and increased lactate (ICC versus LCC, HCO3-: 24.3 (22.7, 25.8) versus 23.7 (22.3, 24.7) mmol/L, P = 0.01; BE: -2.70 (-4.80, -1.50) versus - 3.72 (-5.66, -2.36) mmol/L, P = 0.006; lactate: 2.1 (1.6, 3.7) versus 2.7 (2.1, 4.3) mmol/L, P = 0.005), without the alterations of pCO2, pO2, hemoglobin, hematocrit and glucose. Similar results were found in neonates of NDM (ICC versus LCC, HCO3-: 24.3 (23.1, 25.7) versus 23.5 (22.3, 24.8) mmol/L, P = 0.01; BE: -2.39 (-3.73, -1.51) versus - 3.40 (-4.73, -1.91) mmol/L, P = 0.001; lactate: 2.2 (1.9, 3.3) versus 2.5 (2.0, 4.3) mmol/L, P = 0.01), except for the higher level of hemoglobin in the LCC group. The majority of diabetic mothers (ICC: 92.0%; LCC: 91.8%) had good blood glucose control. No differences were observed in acid-base status and glucose between neonates of DM and neonates of NDM in both ICC and LCC, but hemoglobin and hematocrit were elevated after ICC in neonates of DM compared to neonates of NDM.CONCLUSIONS: Later cord clamping of ≥ 30 s resulted in a tendency towards metabolic acidosis of umbilical arterial blood in neonates of DM and NDM. Umbilical arterial blood gas parameters at birth were similar in neonates of DM and NDM.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04369313 ; date of registration: 30/04/2020 (retrospectively registered).PMID:35232426 | PMC:PMC8886805 | DOI:10.1186/s12887-022-03170-z…
    2 March 2022 12:00 – Hailing Shao
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 30- versus a 120-Second Delay in Cord Clamping after Term Birth

    Am J Perinatol. 2022 Feb 15. doi: 10.1055/a-1772-4543. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been recently adopted in neonatal resuscitation. The immediate cardiac hemodynamic effects related to DCC more than 30 seconds was not studied. We aimed to study the effect of DCC at 120 seconds compared with 30 seconds on multiple hemodynamic variables in full-term infants using an electrical cardiometry (EC) device.STUDY DESIGN: Present study is a randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted with full-term infants who were delivered at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in Cairo University Hospital. Sixty-eight full term infants were successfully enrolled in this trial. Cardiac output (CO) and other hemodynamic parameters were evaluated in this study by EC device. Hemoglobin, glucose, and bilirubin concentrations were measured at 24 hours. Newborn infants were assigned randomly into group 1: DCC at 30 seconds, and group 2: DCC at 120 seconds, based on the time of cord clamping.RESULTS: Stroke volume (SV) (mL) and CO (L/min) were significantly higher in group 2 compared with group 1 at 5 minutes (6.71 vs. 5.35 and 1.09 vs. 0.75), 10 minutes (6.43 vs. 5.59 and 0.88 vs. 0.77), 15 minutes (6.45 vs. 5.60 and 0.89 vs. 0.76), and 24 hours (6.67 vs. 5.75 and 0.91vs. 0.81), respectively. Index of contractility (ICON; units) was significantly increased in group 2 at 5 minutes compared with group1 (114.2 vs. 83.8). Hematocrit (%) and total bilirubin concentrations (mg/dL) at 24 hours were significantly increased in group 2 compared with group 1 (51.5 vs. 40.5 and 3.8 vs. 2.9, respectively).CONCLUSION: Stroke volume and cardiac output are significantly higher in neonates with DCC at 120 seconds compared with 30 seconds that continues for the first 24 hours.KEY POINTS: · CO is significantly increased with DCC at 120 seconds.. · SV is significantly increased with DCC at 120 seconds.. · Such effects continued during the entire 24 hours of life in full-term infants..PMID:35170013 | DOI:10.1055/a-1772-4543…
    16 February 2022 12:00 – Reem M Soliman
  • Current Resources for Evidence-Based Practice, March 2022

    J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2022 Mar;51(2):225-237. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2022.01.005. Epub 2022 Feb 10.ABSTRACTAn extensive review of new resources to support the provision of evidence-based care for women and infants. The current column includes a discussion of systemic racism and its effect on maternal health in the United States and commentaries on reviews focused on barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination and delayed cord clamping in preterm infants.PMID:35150643 | DOI:10.1016/j.jogn.2022.01.005…
    12 February 2022 12:00 – Marit L Bovbjerg
  • Delayed cord clamping: Impact on fetal cord blood gas analysis

    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2022 Apr;62(2):328-331. doi: 10.1111/ajo.13488. Epub 2022 Feb 7.ABSTRACTBoth delayed cord clamping (DCC) and cord blood gas (CBG) analysis are recommended practices for preterm births. However, the compliance rates remain lower than expected, with a DCC rate of only 48.9% and CBG sampling of 66.6% in the preterm cohort. DCC was associated with a significant reduction in success rate of paired CBG analysis in both the term and preterm cohort of 8.3% and 7.7% respectively. Our study highlights the difficulty in achieving both recommendations.PMID:35129206 | DOI:10.1111/ajo.13488…
    7 February 2022 12:00 – Cynthia Wong
  • Toward greater nuance in delayed cord clamping

    Curr Opin Pediatr. 2022 Apr 1;34(2):170-177. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001117.ABSTRACTPURPOSE OF REVIEW: For over a decade, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has recommended delayed cord clamping (DCC), but implementation has been variable due to lack of consensus on details of technique and concerns for risks in certain patient populations. This review summarizes recent literature on the benefits and risks of DCC in term and preterm infants and examines alternative approaches such as physiologic-based cord clamping or intact cord resuscitation (ICR) and umbilical cord milking (UCM).RECENT FINDINGS: DCC improves hemoglobin/hematocrit among term infants and may promote improved neurodevelopment. In preterms, DCC improves survival compared to early cord clamping; however, UCM has been associated with severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely preterm infants. Infants of COVID-19 positive mothers, growth-restricted babies, multiples, and some infants with cardiopulmonary anomalies can also benefit from DCC. Large randomized trials of ICR will clarify safety and benefits in nonvigorous neonates. These have the potential to dramatically change the sequence of events during neonatal resuscitation.SUMMARY: Umbilical cord management has moved beyond simple time-based comparisons to nuances of technique and application in vulnerable sub-populations. Ongoing research highlights the importance of an individualized approach that recognizes the physiologic equilibrium when ventilation is established before cord clamping.PMID:35125380 | PMC:PMC8893040 | DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000001117…
    7 February 2022 12:00 – Laura Marrs
  • What does the evidence tell us? Revisiting optimal cord management at the time of birth

    Eur J Pediatr. 2022 May;181(5):1797-1807. doi: 10.1007/s00431-022-04395-x. Epub 2022 Feb 2.ABSTRACTA newborn who receives a placental transfusion at birth from delayed cord clamping (DCC) obtains about 30% more blood volume than those with immediate cord clamping (ICC). Benefits for term neonates include higher hemoglobin levels, less iron deficiency in infancy, improved myelination out to 12 months, and better motor and social development at 4 years of age especially in boys. For preterm infants, benefits include less intraventricular hemorrhage, fewer gastrointestinal issues, lower transfusion requirements, and less mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit by 30%. Ventilation before clamping the umbilical cord can reduce large swings in cardiovascular function and help to stabilize the neonate. Hypovolemia, often associated with nuchal cord or shoulder dystocia, may lead to an inflammatory cascade and subsequent ischemic injury. A sudden unexpected neonatal asystole at birth may occur from severe hypovolemia. The restoration of blood volume is an important action to protect the hearts and brains of neonates. Currently, protocols for resuscitation call for ICC. However, receiving an adequate blood volume via placental transfusion may be protective for distressed neonates as it prevents hypovolemia and supports optimal perfusion to all organs. Bringing the resuscitation to the mother's bedside is a novel concept and supports an intact umbilical cord. When one cannot wait, cord milking several times can be done quickly within the resuscitation guidelines. Cord blood gases can be collected with optimal cord management. Conclusion: Adopting a policy for resuscitation with an intact cord in a hospital setting takes a coordinated effort and requires teamwork by obstetrics, pediatrics, midwifery, and nursing.PMID:35112135 | PMC:PMC9056455 | DOI:10.1007/s00431-022-04395-x…
    3 February 2022 12:00 – Heike Rabe
  • A Quality Improvement Bundle to Improve Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants in the First Week

    Pediatrics. 2022 Feb 1;149(2):e2020037341. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-037341.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: Our objective with this quality improvement initiative was to reduce rates of severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or death in the first week after birth among extremely preterm infants.METHODS: The quality improvement initiative was conducted from April 2014 to September 2020 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham's NICU. All actively treated inborn extremely preterm infants without congenital anomalies from 22 + 0/7 to 27 + 6/7 weeks' gestation with a birth weight ≥400 g were included. The primary outcome was severe ICH or death in the first 7 days after birth. Balancing measures included rates of acute kidney injury and spontaneous intestinal perforation. Outcome and process measure data were analyzed by using p-charts.RESULTS: We studied 820 infants with a mean gestational age of 25 + 3/7 weeks and median birth weight of 744 g. The rate of severe ICH or death in the first week after birth decreased from the baseline rate of 27.4% to 15.0%. The rate of severe ICH decreased from a baseline rate of 16.4% to 10.0%. Special cause variation in the rate of severe ICH or death in the first week after birth was observed corresponding with improvement in carbon dioxide and pH targeting, compliance with delayed cord clamping, and expanded use of indomethacin prophylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a bundle of evidence-based potentially better practices by using specific electronic order sets was associated with a lower rate of severe ICH or death in the first week among extremely preterm infants.PMID:35088085 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-037341…
    28 January 2022 12:00 – Colm P Travers
  • Not Everything Is Cordless Today-Case Report of Acute Intestinal Obstruction in a Neonate Due to Cord Clamping

    Front Pediatr. 2022 Jan 7;9:810570. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.810570. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTWe report a case of a 2-day-old neonate with bilious vomiting and abdominal distension. A small bowel obstruction with ileal perforation due to a misplaced clamping of the umbilical cord was apparent before laparotomy. This complication was a sequala after clamping the cord too close to the abdominal wall in a case where there was a hernia into the cord with intestinal content. A herniation of abdominal contents due to an omphalocele minor or a hernia must be taken into consideration during the inspection of the umbilical cord before clamping.PMID:35071143 | PMC:PMC8779468 | DOI:10.3389/fped.2021.810570…
    24 January 2022 12:00 – Daniel Keese
  • Comparison of Three Different Cord Clamping Techniques Regarding Oxidative-Antioxidative Capacity in Term Newborns

    Am J Perinatol. 2022 Jan 13. doi: 10.1055/a-1739-3529. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: As newborns are exposed to oxidative stress during delivery, cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status. In this study, we aimed to show the relationship between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC), and cut-umbilical cord milking (C-UCM) techniques with total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and peroxynitrite levels.STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-nine term infants were selected with Apgar's score of 7 and above in the 1 minute and 5 minutes. The mothers of all infants had uncomplicated pregnancy, had no congenital anomaly, and delivered by cesarean section. Newborns were randomized to one of three groups: ECC (n: 23), DCC (n: 23), or C-UCM (n: 23). After all newborn babies were taken under radiant heater, blood samples were collected from the UC. The plasma samples were then frozen and stored at -80°C until analysis and TOC, TAC, and peroxynitrite levels were studied.RESULTS: The ages of the mothers participating in the study were between 17 and 42 years, with an average of 29.14 ± 6.28. Thirty (43.5%) of the babies were girls and 39 (56.5%) were boys. The 5-minute Apgar's score of the babies in ECC group was significantly lower than the babies in DCC and cut cord milking group (p = 0.034; p = 0.034; p < 0.05). The TOC, oxidative stress index (OSI), and peroxynitrite measurements of three groups did not differ statistically. The TAC value of the C-UCM group was significantly higher than the patients with the ECC and DCC groups (p = 0.002; p = 0.019; p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: C-UCM and DCC would be feasible methods by increasing antioxidant status and providing protective effect on the future health of the term newborns.KEY POINT: · Cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status of the newborn babies.. · C-UCM and DCC are feasible methods for term newborns.. · Cord clamping methods may play a protective effect on the future health of term newborns..PMID:35026851 | DOI:10.1055/a-1739-3529…
    13 January 2022 12:00 – İshak Kartal
  • Oxygen saturation and heart rate in healthy term and late preterm infants with delayed cord clamping

    Pediatr Res. 2022 Jan 7. doi: 10.1038/s41390-021-01805-y. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBlood oxygen in the fetus is substantially lower than in the newborn infant. In the minutes after birth, arterial oxygen saturation rises from around 50-60% to 90-95%. Initial respiratory efforts generate negative trans-thoracic pressures that drive liquid from the airways into the lung interstitium facilitating lung aeration, blood oxygenation, and pulmonary artery vasodilatation. Consequently, intra- (foramen ovale) and extra-cardiac (ductus arteriosus) shunting changes and the sequential circulation switches to a parallel pulmonary and systemic circulation. Delaying cord clamping preserves blood flow through the ascending vena cava, thus increasing right and left ventricular preload. Recently published reference ranges have suggested that delayed cord clamping positively influenced the fetal-to-neonatal transition. Oxygen saturation in babies with delayed cord clamping plateaus significantly earlier to values of 85-90% than in babies with immediate cord clamping. Delayed cord clamping may also contribute to fewer episodes of brady-or-tachycardia in the first minutes after birth, but data from randomized trials are awaited. IMPACT: Delaying cord clamping during fetal to neonatal transition contributes to a significantly earlier plateauing of oxygen saturation and fewer episodes of brady-and/or-tachycardia in the first minutes after birth. We provide updated information regarding the changes in SpO2 and HR during postnatal adaptation of term and late preterm infants receiving delayed compared with immediate cord clamping. Nomograms in newborn infants with delayed cord clamping will provide valuable reference ranges to establish target SpO2 and HR in the first minutes after birth.PMID:34997223 | DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01805-y…
    8 January 2022 12:00 – Inmaculada Lara-Cantón
  • Physiology, Neonatal

    2022 Apr 28. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–.ABSTRACTThe neonatal period is the period of the most dramatic physiologic changes that occur during human life. While the respiratory and cardiovascular systems change immediately at birth, other organ systems evolve slowly with time until the transition from intrauterine to adult physiology is complete. The transitional period of the newborn is a critical time for humans to adapt to life outside the womb. There are distinct physiologic changes during this period, especially regarding the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The loss of the low-pressure placenta and its ability to facilitate gas exchange, circulation, and waste management for the fetus creates a need for physiologic adaptation.Premature birth can significantly thwart these physiologic changes from occurring as they should. The endocrine system, specifically the release of cortisol via the hypothalamus, is responsible for lung maturation of the fetus and the neonate. There is a “cortisol surge” that begins with cortisol levels of 5 to 10 mcg/ml at 30 weeks gestational age, 20 mcg/ml at 36 weeks, 46 mcg/ml at 40 weeks, and 200mcg/ml during labor. Cortisol is responsible for lung maturation, thyroid hormone secretion, hepatic gluconeogenesis, catecholamine secretion, and the production of digestive enzymes. Mature thyroid function appears to help prepare the neonatal cardiovascular system and aid in the regulation of temperature. Following clamping of the umbilical cord and the first breath of life, arterial oxygen tension increases, and pulmonary vascular resistance decreases, facilitating gas exchange in the lungs. Subsequent pulmonary blood flow will cause an increase in left atrial pressure and a reduction in right atrial pressure. Changes in the PO2, PCO2, and pH are contributing factors to these physiologic changes in the newborn. Lung surfactant plays a critical role in these changes allowing the lungs to mature upon delivery. Remnants of fetal circulation (ductus arteriosus, foramen ovale, ductus venosus) will also gradually recede during this neonatal period, defined as up to 44 weeks postconceptual age.PMID:30969662 | Bookshelf:NBK539840…
    1 January 2022 12:00 – Tara M. Doherty
  • The Use of a Disposable Umbilical Clamp to Secure an Umbilical Venous Catheter in Neonatal Emergencies-An Experimental Feasibility Study

    Children (Basel). 2021 Nov 26;8(12):1093. doi: 10.3390/children8121093.ABSTRACTRecent guidelines recommend the umbilical venous catheter (UVC) as the optimal vascular access method during neonatal resuscitation. In emergencies the UVC securement may be challenging and time-consuming. This experimental study was designed to test the feasibility of new concepts for the UVC securement. Umbilical cord remnants were catheterized with peripheral catheters and secured with disposable umbilical clamps. Three different securement techniques were investigated. Secure 1: the disposable umbilical clamp was closed at the level of the inserted catheter. Secure 2: the clamp was closed at the junction of the catheter and plastic wings. Secure 3: the setting of Secure 2 was combined with an umbilical tape. The main outcomes were the feasibility of fluid administration and the maximum force to release the securement. This study shows that inserting peripheral catheters into the umbilical vein and securing them with disposable umbilical clamps is feasible. Rates of lumen obstruction and the effectiveness of the securement were superior with Secure 2 and 3 compared to Secure 1. This new approach may be a rewarding option for umbilical venous catheterization and securement particularly in low-resource settings and for staff with limited experience in neonatal emergencies. However, although promising, these results need to be confirmed in clinical trials before being introduced into clinical practice.PMID:34943289 | PMC:PMC8699894 | DOI:10.3390/children8121093…
    24 December 2021 12:00 – Bernhard Schwaberger
  • Evaluating the implementation of helping babies survive program to improve newborn care conditiona

    J Educ Health Promot. 2021 Oct 29;10:373. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_53_21. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The main reason of newborn mortalities in low- and middle-income countries is due to the lack of skilled caregivers in providing essential care for babies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of helping babies survive (HBS) program to improve newborn care condition in Isfahan, Iran.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the labor and midwifery wards of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan. Convenience sampling method was used for all healthy newborns who weighed >1500 g. First, the samples were selected for the control group. Then, the Helping Babies Breathe and Essential Care for Every Baby training courses were held over for ward nurses and midwives. Then, the samples of the intervention group were selected. The research tools consisted of demographic characteristic questionnaire, caregiver performance evaluation checklist, and breastfeeding registration checklist. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis.RESULTS: A total of 130 newborns were divided into control (n = 65) and intervention groups (n = 65). The average time of umbilical cord clamping increased from 13.85 to 61.48 s, and the average duration of skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby increased from 11.75 to 60.47 min. The mean of early initiation of breastfeeding improved during the 1st h and the 1st day of the birth. The rate of neonatal hypothermia in the intervention group decreased sharply.CONCLUSION: The implementation of the HBS program can positively impact newborn care condition.PMID:34912909 | PMC:PMC8641757 | DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_53_21…
    16 December 2021 12:00 – Atefeh Jourabian
  • Effects of delayed versus immediate umbilical cord clamping in reducing death or major disability at 2 years corrected age among very preterm infants (APTS): a multicentre, randomised clinical trial

    Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2022 Mar;6(3):150-157. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00373-4. Epub 2021 Dec 8.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Very preterm infants are at increased risk of adverse outcomes in early childhood. We assessed whether delayed clamping of the umbilical cord reduces mortality or major disability at 2 years in the APTS Childhood Follow Up Study.METHODS: In this long-term follow-up analysis of the multicentre, randomised APTS trial in 25 centres in seven countries, infants (<30 weeks gestation) were randomly assigned before birth (1:1) to have clinicians aim to delay clamping for 60 s or more or clamp within 10 s of birth, both without cord milking. The primary outcome was death or major disability (cerebral palsy, severe visual loss, deafness requiring a hearing aid or cochlear implants, major language or speech problems, or cognitive delay) at 2 years corrected age, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000633088).FINDINGS: Between Oct 21, 2009, and Jan 6, 2017, consent was obtained for follow-up for 1531 infants, of whom 767 were randomly assigned to delayed clamping and 764 to immediate clamping. 384 (25%) of 1531 infants were multiple births, 862 (56%) infants were male, and 505 (33%) were born before 27 weeks gestation. 564 (74%) of 767 infants assigned to delayed clamping and 726 (96%) of 764 infants assigned to immediate clamping received treatment that fully adhered to the protocol. Death or major disability was determined in 1419 (93%) infants and occurred in 204 (29%) of 709 infants who were assigned to delayed clamping versus 240 (34%) of 710 assigned to immediate clamping, (relative risk [RR]) 0·83, 95% CI 0·72-0·95; p=0·010). 60 (8%) of 725 infants in the delayed clamping group and 81 (11%) of 720 infants in the immediate clamping group died by 2 years of age (RR 0·70, 95% CI 0·52-0·95); among those who survived, major disability at 2 years occurred in 23% (144/627) versus 26% (159/603) of infants, respectively (RR 0·88, 0·74-1·04).INTERPRETATION: Clamping the umbilical cord at least 60 s after birth reduced the risk of death or major disability at 2 years by 17%, reflecting a 30% reduction in relative mortality with no difference in major disability.FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.PMID:34895510 | DOI:10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00373-4…
    13 December 2021 12:00 – Kristy P Robledo
  • Large Hemoglobin Differences at Birth in Monochorionic Twins with a Placental Chorangioma and Delayed Cord Clamping

    Twin Res Hum Genet. 2021 Oct;24(5):281-284. doi: 10.1017/thg.2021.46. Epub 2021 Dec 9.ABSTRACTWe report a case of a monochorionic diamniotic twin with an uncomplicated pregnancy, but with an unexpected large intertwin hemoglobin (Hb) difference at birth. Twin 1 was delivered vaginally and had an uneventful neonatal course. The umbilical cord of Twin 1 was clamped approximately 5 min after birth. After the birth of Twin 1, Twin 2 developed severe bradycardia and showed limited cardiac output on ultrasound, for which an emergency cesarean section was performed. A full blood count revealed an Hb of 20.1 g/dL for Twin 1 and 10.2 g/dL for Twin 2 (intertwin difference 9.9 g/dL). Reticulocyte counts were similar, 40‰ and 38‰, respectively. Placental examination revealed 10 vascular anastomoses, including one arterio-arterial anastomosis with a diameter of 1.4 mm. Additionally, a large chorangioma was present on the placental surface of Twin 2. There was no color difference on the maternal side of the placenta. Based on the reticulocyte count ratio and the placental characteristics, twin anemia polycythemia sequence was ruled out as the cause of the large intertwin Hb difference. In this report, we discuss the various potential causes that could explain the large intertwin Hb difference including the role of delayed cord clamping in Twin 1, and the role of a large chorangioma, which may have attracted blood from the fetal circulation of Twin 2.PMID:34879894 | DOI:10.1017/thg.2021.46…
    9 December 2021 12:00 – Sophie G Groene
  • Management of Placental Transfusion to Neonates After Delivery

    Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Jan 1;139(1):121-137. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004625.ABSTRACTThis review summarizes high-quality evidence supporting delayed umbilical cord clamping to promote placental transfusion to preterm and term neonates. In preterm neonates, delayed cord clamping may decrease mortality and the need for blood transfusions. Although robust data are lacking to guide cord management strategies in many clinical scenarios, emerging literature is reviewed on numerous topics including delivery mode, twin gestations, maternal comorbidities (eg, gestational diabetes, red blood cell alloimmunization, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection) and neonatal complications (eg, fetal growth restriction, congenital heart disease, and the depressed neonate). Umbilical cord milking is an alternate method of rapid placental transfusion, but has been associated with severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely preterm neonates. Data on long-term outcomes are discussed, as well as potential contraindications to delayed cord clamping. Overall, delayed cord clamping offers potential benefits to the estimated 140 million neonates born globally every year, emphasizing the importance of this simple and no-cost strategy.PMID:34856560 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004625…
    2 December 2021 12:00 – Ryan M McAdams
  • Single versus continuous sustained inflations during chest compressions and physiological-based cord clamping in asystolic lambs

    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2021 Nov 29:fetalneonatal-2021-322881. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2021-322881. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The feasibility and benefits of continuous sustained inflations (SIs) during chest compressions (CCs) during delayed cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping; PBCC) are not known. We aimed to determine whether continuous SIs during CCs would reduce the time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improve post-asphyxial blood pressures and flows in asystolic newborn lambs.METHODS: Fetal sheep were surgically instrumented immediately prior to delivery at ~139 days' gestation and asphyxia induced until lambs reached asystole. Lambs were randomised to either immediate cord clamping (ICC) or PBCC. Lambs then received a single SI (SIsing; 30 s at 30 cmH2O) followed by intermittent positive pressure ventilation, or continuous SIs (SIcont: 30 s duration with 1 s break). We thus examined 4 groups: ICC +SIsing, ICC +SIcont, PBCC +SIsing, and PBCC +SIcont. Chest compressions and epinephrine administration followed international guidelines. PBCC lambs underwent cord clamping 10 min after ROSC. Physiological and oxygenation variables were measured throughout.RESULTS: The time taken to achieve ROSC was not different between groups (mean (SD) 4.3±2.9 min). Mean and diastolic blood pressure was higher during chest compressions in PBCC lambs compared with ICC lambs, but no effect of SIs was observed. SIcont significantly reduced pulmonary blood flow, diastolic blood pressure and oxygenation after ROSC compared with SIsing.CONCLUSION: We found no significant benefit of SIcont over SIsing during CPR on the time to ROSC or on post-ROSC haemodynamics, but did demonstrate the feasibility of continuous SIs during advanced CPR on an intact umbilical cord. Longer-term studies are recommended before this technique is used routinely in clinical practice.PMID:34844983 | DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2021-322881…
    30 November 2021 12:00 – Georg M Schmölzer
  • Maturation of persistent and hyperpolarization-activated inward currents shapes the differential activation of motoneuron subtypes during postnatal development

    Elife. 2021 Nov 16;10:e71385. doi: 10.7554/eLife.71385.ABSTRACTThe size principle underlies the orderly recruitment of motor units; however, motoneuron size is a poor predictor of recruitment amongst functionally defined motoneuron subtypes. Whilst intrinsic properties are key regulators of motoneuron recruitment, the underlying currents involved are not well defined. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was deployed to study intrinsic properties, and the underlying currents, that contribute to the differential activation of delayed and immediate firing motoneuron subtypes. Motoneurons were studied during the first three postnatal weeks in mice to identify key properties that contribute to rheobase and may be important to establish orderly recruitment. We find that delayed and immediate firing motoneurons are functionally homogeneous during the first postnatal week and are activated based on size, irrespective of subtype. The rheobase of motoneuron subtypes becomes staggered during the second postnatal week, which coincides with the differential maturation of passive and active properties, particularly persistent inward currents. Rheobase of delayed firing motoneurons increases further in the third postnatal week due to the development of a prominent resting hyperpolarization-activated inward current. Our results suggest that motoneuron recruitment is multifactorial, with recruitment order established during postnatal development through the differential maturation of passive properties and sequential integration of persistent and hyperpolarization-activated inward currents.PMID:34783651 | PMC:PMC8641952 | DOI:10.7554/eLife.71385…
    16 November 2021 12:00 – Simon A Sharples
  • Predictors for timely initiation of breastfeeding after birth in the hospitals of Nepal- a prospective observational study

    Int Breastfeed J. 2021 Oct 29;16(1):85. doi: 10.1186/s13006-021-00431-y.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding can reduce neonatal morbidities and mortality. We aimed to study predictors for timely initiation of breastfeeding (within 1 h of birth) among neonates born in hospitals of Nepal.METHOD: A prospective observational study was conducted in four public hospitals between July and October 2018. All women admitted in the hospital for childbirth and who consented were included in the study. An independent researchers observed whether the neonates were placed in skin-to-skin contact, delay cord clamping and timely initiation of breastfeeding. Sociodemographic variables, obstetric and neonate information were extracted from the maternity register. We analysed predictors for timely initiation of breastfeeding with Pearson chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression.RESULTS: Among the 6488 woman-infant pair observed, breastfeeding was timely initiated in 49.5% neonates. The timely initiation of breastfeeding was found to be higher among neonates who were placed skin-to-skin contact (34.9% vs 19.9%, p - value < 0.001). The timely initiation of breastfeeding was higher if the cord clamping was delayed than early cord clamped neonates (44.5% vs 35.3%, p - value < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, a mother with no obstetric complication during admission had 57% higher odds of timely initiation of breastfeeding (aOR 1.57; 95% CI 1.33, 1.86). Multiparity was associated with less timely initiation of breastfeeding (aOR 1.56; 95% CI 1.35, 1.82). Similarly, there was more common practice of timely initiation of breastfeeding among low birthweight neonates (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.21, 1.76). Neonates who were placed skin-to-skin contact with mother had more than two-fold higher odds of timely breastfeeding (aOR 2.52; 95% CI 2.19, 2.89). Likewise, neonates who had their cord intact for 3 min had 37% higher odds of timely breastfeeding (aOR 1.37; 95% CI 1.21, 1.55).CONCLUSIONS: The rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding practice is low in the health facilities of Nepal. Multiparity, no obstetric complication at admission, neonates placed in skin-to-skin contact and delay cord clamping were strong predictors for timely initiation of breastfeeding. Quality improvement intervention can improve skin-to-skin contact, delayed cord clamping and timely initiation of breastfeeding.PMID:34715883 | PMC:PMC8555201 | DOI:10.1186/s13006-021-00431-y…
    30 October 2021 12:00 – Rejina Gurung
  • Impact of stimulation among non-crying neonates with intact cord versus clamped cord on birth outcomes: observation study

    BMJ Paediatr Open. 2021 Oct 1;5(1):e001207. doi: 10.1136/bmjpo-2021-001207. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Stimulation of non-crying neonates after birth can help transition to spontaneous breathing. In this study, we aim to assess the impact of intact versus clamped umbilical cord on spontaneous breathing after stimulation of non-crying neonates.METHODS: This is an observational study among non-crying neonates (n=3073) born in hospitals of Nepal. Non-crying neonates born vaginally at gestational age ≥34 weeks were observed for their response to stimulation with the cord intact or clamped. Obstetric characteristics of the neonates were analysed. Association of spontaneous breathing with cord management was assessed using logistic regression.RESULTS: Among non-crying neonates, 2563 received stimulation. Of these, a higher proportion of the neonates were breathing in the group with cord intact as compared with the group cord clamped (81.1% vs 68.9%, p<0.0001). The use of bag-and-mask ventilation was lower among those who were stimulated with the cord intact than those who were stimulated with cord clamped (18.0% vs 32.4%, p<0.0001). The proportion of neonates with Apgar Score ≤3 at 1 min was lower with the cord intact than with cord clamped (7.6% vs 11.5%, p=0.001). In multivariate analysis, neonates with intact cord had 84% increased odds of spontaneous breathing (adjusted OR, 1.84; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.29) compared with those with cord clamped.CONCLUSIONS: Stimulation of non-crying neonates with intact cord was associated with more spontaneous breathing than among infants who were stimulated with cord clamped. Intact cord stimulation may help establish spontaneous breathing in apnoeic neonates, but residual confounding variables may be contributing to the findings. This study provides evidence for further controlled research to evaluate the effect of initial steps of resuscitation with cord intact.PMID:34660914 | PMC:PMC8488701 | DOI:10.1136/bmjpo-2021-001207…
    18 October 2021 12:00 – Ashish Kc
  • Prevalence of Delayed Cord Clamping Among U.S. Hospitals by Facility Characteristics

    Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Nov 1;138(5):802-804. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004564.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34619715 | PMC:PMC8564712 | DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004564…
    7 October 2021 12:00 – Jasmine Y Nakayama
  • Implementing an internet-based capacity building program for interdisciplinary midwifery-lead teams in Ethiopia, Kenya Malawi and Somalia

    Sex Reprod Healthc. 2021 Dec;30:100670. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2021.100670. Epub 2021 Sep 24.ABSTRACTThe Swedish care model MIDWIZE defined as midwife-led interdisciplinary care and zero separation between mother and newborn, was implemented in 2020-21 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, and Somalia in a capacity building programme funded by the Swedish Institute.OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of using an internet-based capacity building programme contributing to effective midwifery practices in the labour rooms through implementation of dynamic birthing positions, delayed umbilical cord clamping and skin-to-skin care of newborns in the immediate postnatal period.METHODS: The design is inspired by process evaluation. Focus group discussions with policy leaders, academicians, and clinicians who participated in the capacity building programme were carried out. Before and after the intervention, the numbers for dynamic birthing positions, delayed umbilical cord clamping and skin-to-skin care of the newborn in the immediate postnatal period were detected.RESULTS: Participants believed the internet-based programme was appropriate for their countries' contexts based on their need for improved leadership and collaboration, the need for strengthened human resources, and the vast need for improved outcomes of maternal and newborn health.CONCLUSION: The findings provide insight into the feasibility to expand similar online capacity building programmes in collaboration with onsite policy leaders, academicians, and clinicians in sub-Saharan African countries with an agenda for improvements in maternal and child health.PMID:34600417 | DOI:10.1016/j.srhc.2021.100670…
    2 October 2021 12:00 – K Erlandsson
  • A 20-cm cut umbilical cord milking may not benefit the preterm infants &lt; 30 week's gestation: A randomized clinical trial

    J Formos Med Assoc. 2022 May;121(5):912-919. doi: 10.1016/j.jfma.2021.09.013. Epub 2021 Sep 28.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To evaluate whether a shorter length (20 cm) of C-UCM has potential benefits, compared to immediate cord clamping (ICC), in very preterm babies.METHODS: Inborn preterm infants less than 30 weeks of gestational age (GA) were randomly assigned to the 20-cm C-UMC and ICC groups. The primary outcome was the need for packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion before the 21st day of life. The secondary outcomes were short- and long-term outcomes related to premature birth.RESULTS: Seventy-six neonates were randomized to the two groups. GA were 27.2 ± 1.8 and 27.5 ± 1.7 weeks (p = 0.389) and birth weights were 987 ± 269 and 1023 ± 313 g (p = 0.601) in the 20-cm C-UCM and ICC groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the need for pRBC transfusion before the 21st day of life (59.4% versus 71.8%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.311, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.090-1.079). An increased prevalence of late-onset sepsis was observed in the 20-cm C-UCM group compared to the ICC group (21.6% versus 5.1%, aOR 5.434, 95% CI 1.033-23.580). The mortality rates were 13.5% and 2.6% in the 20-cm C-UCM and ICC groups, respectively (aOR 5.339, 95% CI 0.563-50.626). The neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of corrected age between the groups were also not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: A 20-cm C-UCM showed no effect on reducing the incidence of pRBC transfusion in preterm babies with GA less than 30 weeks compared with ICC in this small-scale randomized controlled trial.PMID:34593275 | DOI:10.1016/j.jfma.2021.09.013…
    1 October 2021 12:00 – Shang-Po Shen
  • Iron deficiency during the first 1000 days of life: are we doing enough to protect the developing brain?

    Proc Nutr Soc. 2021 Sep 22:1-11. doi: 10.1017/S0029665121002858. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIron is essential for the functioning of all cells and organs, most critically for the developing brain in the fundamental neuronal processes of myelination, energy and neurotransmitter metabolism. Iron deficiency, especially in the first 1000 days of life, can result in long-lasting, irreversible deficits in cognition, motor function and behaviour. Pregnant women, infants and young children are most vulnerable to iron deficiency, due to their high requirements to support growth and development, coupled with a frequently inadequate dietary supply. An unrecognised problem is that even if iron intake is adequate, common pregnancy-related and lifestyle factors can affect maternal-fetal iron supply in utero, resulting in an increased risk of deficiency for the mother and her fetus. Although preterm birth, gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restriction are known risk factors, more recent evidence suggests that maternal obesity and delivery by caesarean section further increase the risk of iron deficiency in the newborn infant, which can persist into early childhood. Despite the considerable threat that early-life iron deficiency poses to long-term neurological development, life chances and a country's overall social and economic progress, strategies to tackle the issue are non-existent, too limited or totally inappropriate. Prevention strategies, focused on improving the health and nutritional status of women of reproductive age are required. Delayed cord clamping should be considered a priority. Better screening strategies to enable the early detection of iron deficiency during pregnancy and early-life should be prioritised, with intervention strategies to protect maternal health and the developing brain.PMID:34548120 | DOI:10.1017/S0029665121002858…
    22 September 2021 12:00 – Elaine K McCarthy
  • The Effect of Different Timings of Delayed Cord Clamping of Term Infants on Maternal and Newborn Outcomes in Normal Vaginal Deliveries

    Cureus. 2021 Aug 14;13(8):e17169. doi: 10.7759/cureus.17169. eCollection 2021 Aug.ABSTRACTBackground and objective Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has proven to be an ideal approach to reduce iron deficiency anemia; however, different timings of DCC relative to the birth outcome lead to conflicting results. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of different timings of DCC on the maternal and neonatal outcomes in normal vaginal deliveries at term. Methods This was an interventional study on neonates born at term without complications to mothers with uneventful pregnancies in the labor unit of a district hospital in Odisha, India. A total of 147 women were randomized to three intervention groups: DCC at one minute, DCC at two minutes, and DCC at three minutes. Hemoglobin and bilirubin levels, maternal blood loss, the timing of the third stage of labor, oxytocin use, and birth weight of the neonates were measured as the outcomes of different timings of DCC. Results At 24-48 hours of age, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels of the neonates were significantly higher with DCC at three minutes compared to DCC at one and two minutes. However, there were no significant differences among the three groups in terms of the need for phototherapy. The duration of the third stage of labor was significantly longer with DCC at three minutes. Maternal blood loss, oxytocin use, and birth weight of the neonates were not significantly associated with the timing of DCC. Conclusion Based on our findings, waiting to clamp the umbilical cord until three minutes can effectively reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anemia in newborns.PMID:34532192 | PMC:PMC8436003 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.17169…
    17 September 2021 12:00 – Divya Katariya
  • FIGO good practice recommendations on delayed umbilical cord clamping

    Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2021 Oct;155(1):34-36. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.13841.ABSTRACTDelayed cord clamping in the first minute in preterm infants born before 34 weeks of gestation improves neonatal hematologic measures and may reduce mortality without increasing any other morbidity. In term-born babies, it also seems to improve both the short- and long-term outcomes and shows favorable scores in fine motor and social domains. However, there is insufficient evidence to show what duration of delay is best. The current evidence supports not clamping the cord before 30 seconds for preterm births. Future trials could compare different lengths of delay. Until then, a period of 30 seconds to 3 minutes seems justified for term-born babies.PMID:34520061 | DOI:10.1002/ijgo.13841…
    14 September 2021 12:00 – Ana Bianchi
  • Introduction of a Quality Improvement Bundle Is Associated with Reduced Exposure to Mechanical Ventilation in Very Preterm Infants

    Neonatology. 2021;118(5):578-585. doi: 10.1159/000518392. Epub 2021 Sep 1.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Exposure to mechanical ventilation (MV) is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very preterm infants (VPTIs). We assessed the impact of a quality improvement (QI) bundle in VPTIs (<32 week gestation) on exposure to MV.METHODS: We introduced a QI bundle consisting of deferred cord clamping (DCC), nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in the delivery room (DR), and minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST). We compared respiratory outcomes and neonatal morbidity in historical pre-QI (July-December 2017) and prospective post-QI (February-July 2019) cohorts (QICs) of VPTIs. We pre-specified an adjusted analysis to account for the effects of gestational age, sex, antenatal steroids, and any demographic data that significantly differed between cohorts.RESULTS: The pre-QI and post-QICs included 87 and 98 VPTIs, respectively. The post-QIC had decreased rates of MV in the DR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.71), in the first 72 h of life (aOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.62) and during admission (aOR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.66). Rates of BPD, combined BPD/death, and BPD severity were similar. The post-QIC was less likely to be discharged with home oxygen (aOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.91). Necrotising enterocolitis grade ≥2 increased (aOR 19.01, 95% CI 1.93-188.6) in the post-QIC.CONCLUSION: In this rapid-cycle QI study, implementation of a QI bundle consisting of DCC, early nasal bCPAP, and MIST in VPTIs was associated with reduced rates of MV in the DR, in the first 72 h of life and during admission, and reduced need for home oxygen.PMID:34515183 | DOI:10.1159/000518392…
    13 September 2021 12:00 – Stacey Chi-Yan Lo
  • Impact of early respiratory care for extremely preterm infants

    Semin Perinatol. 2021 Dec;45(8):151478. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2021.151478. Epub 2021 Aug 21.ABSTRACTDespite advances in neonatal intensive care, more than half of surviving infants born extremely preterm (EP; < 28 weeks' gestation) develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Prevention of BPD is critical because of its associated mortality and morbidity, including adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and respiratory health in later childhood and beyond. The respiratory care of EP infants begins before birth, then continues in the delivery room and throughout the primary hospitalization. This chapter will review the evidence for interventions after birth that might improve outcomes for infants born EP, including the timing of umbilical cord clamping, strategies to avoid or minimize exposure to mechanical ventilation, modes of mechanical ventilation and non-invasive respiratory support, oxygen saturation targets, postnatal corticosteroids and other adjunct therapies.PMID:34474939 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2021.151478…
    3 September 2021 12:00 – Louise S Owen
  • Comparison of intraosseous and intravenous epinephrine administration during resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn lambs

    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2022 May;107(3):311-316. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2021-322638. Epub 2021 Aug 30.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Intraosseous access is recommended as a reasonable alternative for vascular access during newborn resuscitation if umbilical access is unavailable, but there are minimal reported data in newborns. We compared intraosseous with intravenous epinephrine administration during resuscitation of severely asphyxiated lambs at birth.METHODS: Near-term lambs (139 days' gestation) were instrumented antenatally for measurement of carotid and pulmonary blood flow and systemic blood pressure. Intrapartum asphyxia was induced by umbilical cord clamping until asystole. Resuscitation commenced with positive pressure ventilation followed by chest compressions and the lambs received either intraosseous or central intravenous epinephrine (10 μg/kg); epinephrine administration was repeated every 3 min until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The lambs were maintained for 30 min after ROSC. Plasma epinephrine levels were measured before cord clamping, at end asphyxia, and at 3 and 15 min post-ROSC.RESULTS: ROSC was successful in 7 of 9 intraosseous epinephrine lambs and in 10 of 12 intravenous epinephrine lambs. The time and number of epinephrine doses required to achieve ROSC were similar between the groups, as were the achieved plasma epinephrine levels. Lambs in both groups displayed a similar marked overshoot in systemic blood pressure and carotid blood flow after ROSC. Blood gas parameters improved more quickly in the intraosseous lambs in the first 3 min, but were otherwise similar over the 30 min after ROSC.CONCLUSIONS: Intraosseous epinephrine administration results in similar outcomes to intravenous epinephrine during resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn lambs. These findings support the inclusion of intraosseous access as a route for epinephrine administration in current guidelines.PMID:34462318 | DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2021-322638…
    31 August 2021 12:00 – Calum T Roberts
  • How can obstetricians improve outcomes for infants born extremely preterm?

    Semin Perinatol. 2021 Dec;45(8):151477. doi: 10.1016/j.semperi.2021.151477. Epub 2021 Aug 21.ABSTRACTPrematurity remains a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and also has significant implications for long-term health. Obstetricians have a key role to play in improving outcomes for infants born at extremely preterm gestations. This review explores the evidence for interventions available to obstetricians caring for women at risk of birthing at extremely preterm gestations, including antenatal corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate, tocolysis and antibiotics. It also addresses the importance of strategies to facilitate safe in-utero transfer, to maximise the chance of extremely preterm births occurring in tertiary centers, and the clinical value of strategies by which preterm birth can be predicted. The paper concludes with an appraisal of evidence for different modes of birth at extremely preterm gestations, and for delayed cord clamping.PMID:34456063 | DOI:10.1016/j.semperi.2021.151477…
    30 August 2021 12:00 – Stefan C Kane
  • Delayed cord clamping in small for gestational age preterm infants

    Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Feb;226(2):247.e1-247.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.003. Epub 2021 Aug 9.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Infants with restricted growth for age are frequently exposed to insufficient placental circulation and are more likely to develop postnatal complications. Delayed cord clamping at birth for these infants requires further exploration.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the short-term neonatal outcomes of delayed cord clamping with that of early cord clamping in small for gestational age preterm infants and to explore whether the effects of delayed cord clamping in small for gestational age preterm infants are different from that in non-small for gestational age preterm infants.STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a national retrospective cohort study, including infants born at <33 weeks' gestation and admitted to the Canadian Neonatal Network units between January 2015 and December 2017. Small for gestational age infants (birthweight of <10th percentile for gestational age and sex) who received delayed cord clamping ≥30 seconds were compared with those who received early cord clamping. In addition, non-small for gestational age infants who received delayed cord clamping were compared with those who received early cord clamping. The main study outcomes included composite outcome of mortality or major morbidity, neonatal morbidity rate, mortality rate, peak serum bilirubin, and number of blood transfusions. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models with a generalized estimation equation approach were used to account for the clustering of infants within centers.RESULTS: Overall, 9722 infants met the inclusion criteria. Of those infants, 1027 (10.6%) were small for gestational age. The median (interquartile range) gestational age was 31 weeks (range, 28-32 weeks). After adjusting for potential confounders, delayed cord clamping in small for gestational age infants was associated with a reduction in the composite outcome of mortality or major morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.86) compared with early cord clamping. There was no difference between the 2 groups in peak serum bilirubin. Many associated benefits of delayed cord clamping in small for gestational age infants were similar to those in non-small for gestational age infants.CONCLUSION: Delayed cord clamping in small for gestational age preterm infants was associated with decreased odds of mortality or major morbidity. Many of the benefits of delayed cord clamping in the small for gestational age preterm infants were similar to those identified in the non-small for gestational age preterm infants.PMID:34384773 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.003…
    13 August 2021 12:00 – Beth Ellen Brown
  • Immediate vs delayed cord clamping in preterm infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Int J Clin Pract. 2021 Nov;75(11):e14709. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.14709. Epub 2021 Sep 1.ABSTRACTTo compare and evaluate the efficacy and safety of immediate cord clamping (ICC) and delayed cord clamping (DCC) in preterm infants. We performed a comprehensive and systematic meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing ICC and DCC in preterm infants by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, Science Direct, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database (from inception to 30 September 2020). Summary odds ratios or mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed- or random-effect model. A total of 20 RCTs with 1807 preterm infants were included in the study. DCC provided more benefits in increasing the haematocrit and haemoglobin levels at 24 hours of life (%), thus reducing the incidence of anaemia, necrotising enterocolitis, length of hospital stay and mortality than when ICC was performed. No significant differences were found between ICC and DCC in terms of peak bilirubin level; need for blood transfusion, mechanical ventilation (MV) and phototherapy; duration of MV and phototherapy; and incidences of intraventricular haemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, jaundice, polycythaemia, periventricular leukomalacia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. DCC is a safe, beneficial and feasible intervention for preterm infants. However, rigorously designed and large-scale RCTs are necessary to identify the role and ideal timing of DCC.PMID:34370357 | DOI:10.1111/ijcp.14709…
    9 August 2021 12:00 – Jinrong Li
  • Cord Management of the Term Newborn

    Clin Perinatol. 2021 Aug;48(3):447-470. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2021.05.002.ABSTRACTKeeping the umbilical cord intact after delivery facilitates transition from fetal to neonatal circulation and allows a placental transfusion of a considerable amount of blood. A delay of at least 3 minutes improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in term infants. Although regarded as common sense and practiced by many midwives, implementation of delayed cord clamping into practice has been unduly slow, partly because of beliefs regarding theoretic risks of jaundice and lack of understanding regarding the long-term benefits. This article provides arguments for delaying cord clamping for a minimum of 3 minutes.PMID:34353575 | DOI:10.1016/j.clp.2021.05.002…
    6 August 2021 12:00 – Ola Andersson
  • Use of point of care quality improvement methodology to improve newborn care, immediately after birth, at a tertiary care teaching hospital, in a resource constraint setting

    BMJ Open Qual. 2021 Jul;10(Suppl 1):e001445. doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001445.ABSTRACTAfter birth, separation of mothers and newborn is a common practice in many hospitals in our country. After delivery, we take the normal newborn to the radiant warmer in the resuscitation area for routine care. This was the existing process of care at our hospital. The frontline delivery team undertook quality improvement initiative to understand and document factors creating challenges in delivering evidence-based practice of providing immediate skin-to-skin care (SSC), delayed cord clamp (DCC) and early breast feeding within 1 hour of birth. Some of the barriers identified were early newborn mother separation and late transfer of mother from delivery room to the observation area. Additionally, there was a challenge of high delivery load with variation in understanding and provision of SSC and drying on mother's abdomen. These made sustenance of improved care practices difficult. Using the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) approach some successful change ideas tested were pre-delivery counselling, avoiding separation of mother and newborn at birth by providing SSC and continuing it in the post-delivery observation area and getting family member's help in first breast feed. The delivery team adapted these successful change ideas by multiple iterations, group discussions and feedback. This resulted in improved and sustained compliance of pre-delivery counselling, SSC, DCC and initiating breast feed within 1 hour, from minimal compliance to a median compliance of 51%, 56%, 59% and 61%, respectively, over 36 months period. We undertook this quality improvement initiative at Delhi (India) at a tertiary care teaching hospital. The implementation of WHO recommended evidence-based practices benefitted more than 10 000 mother-newborn dyads annually over 2 years, using Point of Care Quality Improvement method. Implementation of evidence-based practice is possible in challenging situations using PDSA approach. The resultant contextualised processes are convenient and have better success at sustainability.PMID:34344737 | PMC:PMC8336133 | DOI:10.1136/bmjoq-2021-001445…
    4 August 2021 12:00 – Ravi Sachan
  • Impact of Deferred Cord Clamping on Mortality and Severe Neurologic Injury in Twins Born at &lt;30 Weeks of Gestation

    J Pediatr. 2021 Nov;238:118-123.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.07.058. Epub 2021 Jul 30.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To determine whether deferred cord clamping (DCC) compared with early cord clamping (ECC) was associated with reduction in death and/or severe neurologic injury among twins born at <30 weeks of gestation.STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study including all liveborn twins of <30 weeks admitted to a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Canada between 2015 and 2018 using the Canadian Neonatal/Preterm Birth Network database. We compared DCC ≥30 seconds vs ECC <30 seconds. Our primary outcome was a composite of death and/or severe neurologic injury (severe intraventricular hemorrhage grade III/IV and/or periventricular leukomalacia). Secondary outcomes included neonatal morbidity and health care utilization outcomes. We calculated aORs and β coefficients for categorical and continuous variables, along with 95% CI. Models were fitted with generalized estimated equations accounting for twin correlation.RESULTS: We included 1597 twins (DCC, 624 [39.1%]; ECC, 973 [60.9%]). Death/severe neurologic injury occurred in 17.8% (n = 111) of twins who received DCC and in 21.7% (n = 211) of those who received ECC. The rate of death/severe neurologic injury did not differ significantly between the DCC and ECC groups (aOR 1.07; 95% CI, 0.78-1.47). DCC was associated with reduced blood transfusions (adjusted β coefficient, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.12) and NICU length of stay (adjusted β coefficient, -4.17; 95% CI, -8.15 to -0.19).CONCLUSIONS: The primary composite outcome of death and/or severe neurologic injury did not differ between twins born at <30 weeks of gestation who received DCC and those who received ECC, but DCC was associated with some benefits.PMID:34332971 | DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.07.058…
    1 August 2021 12:00 – Marinela Grabovac
  • Umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants

    Arch Argent Pediatr. 2021 Aug;119(4):e315-e321. doi: 10.5546/aap.2021.eng.e315.ABSTRACTFor several years now, the survival of preterm infants has been increasing, which has shifted our concern to preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in particular. The timing of umbilical cord clamping may lead to several disorders, especially when done early (10-15 seconds). In the last two decades, several investigations have shown the considerable benefits of delayed cord clamping (2-3 minutes). Delayed cord clamping has been practiced in obstetrics and neonatal care based on the recommendations made by scientific societies and in systematic reviews, which have provided solid evidence to support this practice in preterm infants. This review describes the most relevant articles from the last years, which strongly support the use of delayed cord clamping versus early cord clamping. In addition, this practice reduces the rate of severe disorders in preterm infants.PMID:34309309 | DOI:10.5546/aap.2021.eng.e315…
    26 July 2021 12:00 – José M Ceriani Cernadas

ALtimetric score

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2017 on anemia is spread by media

Measure of how our paper in JAMA Pediatrics 2015 on neurodevelopment is spread by media